Silozi-English dictionary

This dictionary is contained in five files:

A

A. a, pronounced a as in fat.

a, hort. part. : liseli a li be teni, let there be light. A lu yeni, let us go. a! interj, of surprise or protest: ha!

a, pron. subj. (class mu-ba) 3rd pers. sing: He, she, in negative, dependant, narrative, subjunctive and potential tenses: H'a buleli, he does not speak. A ka ya. he may go.

a, (1) pron. subj. and obj. of nouns which have the plural in ma- (class bu-ma, li-ma, lu-ma) they, them: Maoma a lila. the royal drums are sounding: ni a utwile, I have heard them. (2) poss. part. with nouns of same classes: Mabizo a bona, their names; masimu a ka, my gardens. (3) dem. pron. pl. (1st degree) with nouns of same classes, these: Mandu a, these houses. (4) rel. pron. subj. and obj. with nouns of same classes: Malu a mansu, black clouds; those which: Mandu a ni bona (also, mandu e ni bona) the houses which I see.

a ! a ! interj. meaning disapproval or dissent: not so; syn. ha ku cwalo. -aba (abile) v.t. to distribute, to allot, to divide into parts, to share, to dispense: Ba abile nama. they distributed meat. der: muabi, kabelo, siabelo, buabi. rel. -abela (abezi) to distribute, to make an offering to. caus. -abisa (abisize) to order or to help to divide. int. -abe-lela (abelezi) to distribute the whole lot. rec. -abelana (abelani) to share among themselves. ref. -lka-ba (ikabile) to split up. (rel) -ikabe-la (ikabezi) to share out: Ba ikabezi mali, they shared out the money.

acha ! interj. of pain.

achu ! interj. of pain.

afi ? inter. adj. with nouns which have the plural in 'ma', what, what sort, which: Mabaka ki afi? What are the reasons?

-akaleza (akalelize) v.t. Sotho. to sum up, to abbreviate, to summarise; to speak not very accurately, to estimate der. kakalezo.

akalikule Luyana exp. a-ka-li-kule (used in river transport) (lit: the bottom is too far) Let us cease poling, let us paddle, it is too deep to pole. cf. banji.

-akana (akani or akanile) v.t. to rush for, to charge for: Bana ba akana lico, the children are rushing for the food. caus. akanisa (akanisize) to cause to ~.

-akela (akezi) v.t. (1) to lift up (a divining bone) (2) to catch an object which is thrown: Nja ye ha i koni ku akela, this dog is not able to catch; Akela ye, catch this! (syn. -akwela)

-akisa (akisize) v.t. to show off: Musali yo u lata hahulu ka akisa mwan'a hae, this woman likes to show off her child very much. rel. -akiseza (akiselize) to present for people's admiration.

ako... keye, expression used when proposing and answering riddles. (lit: there it comes . . . let it come!)

aku, abber. for: a u ke u will you: A ku ni fe, please give me. The pl is: a mu ke mu (same as nangu)

-akufa (akufile) v.i. to hurry up, to make haste to be quick. cf. -cibilika, -feuka. rel. -akufela (akufezi) to hasten to, to hasten for: Ni akufele, come to me quickly caus. -akufisa (akufisize) to cause to be quick, to hasten; to urge forward, to accelerate: Akufsa sico, hurry up with the food. rel. -akufiseza (akufiselize) to cause to hasten to. freq. -akufanga to go on hastening: Ya akufanga, one who is agile.

-akula (akuzi) v.t. to inhale: Ku akula musi, to inhale smoke; ka akula butuku, to catch a disease by breathing in the germs. rel. -aku-lela (akulezi) to breathe on someone else: U sike wa ni akulela, do not breathe on me.

-akuleza (akulezi) v.t. to stretch out the hands, to catch something thrown.

-akwela (akwezi) v.t. to take off: Akwela tapi! Take the fish off the spear; to catch an object in mid-air. syn. -akela.

-alaba (alabile) v.t. to answer, to reply, to respond: Alaba puzo ya ka, answer my question. der. kalabo, musabelo caus. -alabisa (alabisize) to cause to answer. rec. -alabana (alabani or alabanile) (1) to answer each other. (2) to roll over and over; to writhe in pain. syn. -pitika. ref. -ikalabela (ikala-bezi) to answer for oneself, to pre sent one's own defence.

alabanya (alabanyize) to throw down someone in wrestling.

-alafa (alafile) v.t. to doctor, to give medicine to, to nurse, to treat, to dress a wound: Ku alafa mukuli, to treat a patient. der. -mualafi, kalafo, bualafi mualafelo. rel. -alafela (alafezi) to nurse for: Ni alafele mwan'a ka, nurse my child for me. caus. -alafisa (alafisize) to order or to help to nurse. int. -alafelela (ala felezi) to give everyone medical treatment: ba alafelezi munzi kau-fela, they have treated everyone in the village. ref. -ikalafa (ikalafile) to take medical care of oneself, to treat oneself.

-alakanya (alakanyize) v.i. to think about, to consider thoughtfully; to purpose: U alakanyani? What are you considering?

-alanana (alaani) v.i. (1) to be prominent, jutting out: Mba ya hae i ala nani, he is pot-bellied. (2) to become constipated, costive.

-alauka (alaukile) or -aloka (alokile) v.t. and v.i. to shake violently. caus. -alaukisa (alaukisize) (1) to cause a canoe to wobble through defective paddling (2) to cause swaying (said of a kilt, as worn by the Malozi).

ale, dem. pron. pl. (class: bu-ma, li-ma, lu-ma) (4th degree). those over there Mahobe ale kaufela ki a bo mani? Whose are those portions of buhobe over there? aleka, n. eng. (Script) ark.

-aluhana (aluhani) v.i. to part, to separate. cf. -kauhana.

-aluhanya (aluhanyize) v.t. to separate, to divide. cf. -kauhanya.

-aluka (alukile) or -alauka (alaukile) v.i. to turn over and over: Mukuli u alauka fa mumbeta wa hae, the patient is turning over and over in his bed. cf. -pindumuka.

-alula1 (aluzi) v.t. to divide: Ba aluzi naha ka likiliti. they have divided the country into districts. der. mwaluli, kalulo. fig. to puzzle, to perplex, to embarrass. rel. -alulela (alulezi) to divide for, to give a portion to someone. inv. -alulula (aluluzi) to make a choice; to be partial; to divide a second time. der. saluluti, ketululo

-alula2 (aluzi) v.t. to finish the con- struction of a bow-net by fixing the upper ring. der. mwaluli, mwalo.

-alumuna (alumuzi) v.t. to roll, to remove: Alumuna kota, roll the log. syn. -pindumuna. rel. -alumunela (alumenezi) to roll, to remove for someone. caus. -alumunisa (alumunisize) to help to roll or to remove.

-alunguta (alungutile) v.t. to sort out things in order to find something required. der. mualunguti. rel. -al-ungutela (alungutezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -alungutisa (alungu-tisize) to help to sort out things, to order to get things sorted out. int. -alungutelela (alungutelezi) to sort out things from all boxes, etc.

-ama (amile) v.t. (1) to touch. to catch, to grasp, to hold. syn. -swala. (2) to mention: Taba ha i si ka bulelwa, i amilwe fela, the matter has not been discussed, it has only been mentioned Mutu yo, h'a si ka ama kwateni, this man said nothing on this subject. rec. -amana (amani ) to refer to: taba ye i amana ni yani ye ne lu bulela mabani, this matter refers to what we were talking about yesterday.

-ama-ama (ama-amile) v.t. to grudge, to give unwillingly, to be unwilling to par with: N'a lata ku nga mwana. kono mahe a mu ama ama, he wanted to take the child but the mother was unwilling to part with him.

amata (amatile) v.t. Luyana. to hold lightly (as when holding a baby).

-amba ( ambile ) v.i. Luyana. to speak. der. yambelwa. syn. -bulela inv. -ambulula (ambuluzi) to change one's mind.

-ambakana (ambakani) v.t. to cover all things (flood-water, etc): Mezi a munda a ambakani libala kaufela, the flood-water covers the whole plain. fig. to be omnipresent. to be present everywhere: Kamita mutu yo u ambakani mwa litaba kaufela, this man is always involved in all affairs. der. Muambakani (God)

-ambalala (ambalalile or -ambalaza (ambalalize) v.t. to stretch out arms, to extend wings, to spread: U sike wa ambalala mazoho kwa mulilo u ka ca, do not stretch out your hands to the fire, you may get burnt.

-ambamana (ambamanine) v.t. to cover. cf. -ambeka.

amba-za-unyanga, n.pl. Mbunda. hunters' dance. (in Silozi: lipina za manyanga).

-ambeka (ambekile) v.t. (1) to be leaguer, to surround, to encircle, to cover: Ba ambekile munzi, they beleaguered the village Pula i am-bekile lihalimu, the clouds (lit: rain) cover the whole sky. (2) to hold a child on the lap. in the arms rel. -ambekela (ambekezi) to hold a child for someone.

-ambelela (ambelezi) v.t. (1) to cast a spell by using a medicine and incantations (witchcraft): Butuku bwa hae ki bwa ka ambelelwa, his illness is due to a spell cast over him (2) to order a crocodile to bring back its prey by incantation

-ambola (ambozi) or-ambaula (am bauzi) v.i. to talk, to gossip, to chat, to discuss. der. muamboli, ngambolo. rel. -ambolela (ambolezi) to tell, to talk to, to tell someone, to speak on behalf of: A mu ni am-bolele litaba, tell me the news. caus. -ambolisa (ambolisize) to converse. to hold a conversation with, to make conversation to: Mu ambolise baenyi, make conversation with the guests. rec -amboli-sana (ambolisani or ambolisanile) to converse (the conversation being held by two people only). ref. -lkambolela (ikambolezi) as -ambolisana.

-ambuka (ambukile) v.t. to put aside a matter; to leave someone alone, keep away from someone: Mu ambuke libyana za mutu, leave the man's personal effects. caus. -ambusa (ambusize) to keep some one away from: Na ba ni ambusize mwa litaba za milelo ya bona, they have kept me out of their plans. ref -ikambusa (ikambusize) to keep oneself out of trouble.

-ambula (ambuzi) v.t. to stretch out to the full length: Mbande i ambuzi mafufa, the eagle stretched out its wings.

-ambula2 (ambuzi) v.i. to sit up, to stay up, to keep awake all the night: Lu il'o bu ambula mane sekee: We sat up the whole night till dawn!

-ambwela1 (ambwezi) v.t. not to do or say again; to stop doing something: U ambwele ku bulela manzwi ao, do not say those words again.

-ambwela2 (ambwezi) v.i. to remove harm attached to a taboo by saying or doing something. cf. -mbamba.

-amenena (amenezi) v.t. (1) to take for oneself, as one's own, things which wer meant to be shared: U amenena liluo, he is keeping the whole property for himself. syn. -habelela. (2) to stand by someone, to assist, to speak in favour of: Kamita mushemi u amenena mwan's hae, the parent always stands by his child.

-amuba (amubile) v.i. to lose savour. to become insipid: Busunso bo bu amabile, this relish is tasteless. syn. -sampuka. rel. -amubela (amu-bezi) to be insipid to: Sico se sa ni amubela. to me this food is tasteless. caus. -amubisa (amubisize) to make insipid.

-amuha (amuhile) v.t. to take from by force, to deprive, to disposess: Mun'a munzi u mu amuhile simu, the village headman has taken away a garden from him. rel. -amuhela (amuhezi) to deprive in favour of or on someone's behalf. caus. -amuhisa (amuhisize) to cause someone's deprivation: Ba mu amuhisize simu ka busawana, they dispossessed him of his garden through false reports. int. -amuhelela (amuhelezi) to deprive completely.

-amuhela (amuhezi) v.t. to receive, to take, to accept; to entertain; to welcome: Ku amuhela mpo, to accept a gift. Ku amuhela muenyi, to welcome a guest. der. kamuhelo, luamuhelo. rel. -amuhelela (amuhelezi) to reccive for. and on behalf of: Mulena Lewanika u amuhelezi Buloz Linzwi la Mulimu, King Lewanika welcomed the Word of God on behalf of his country. caus. -amuhelisa (amuhelisize) to help to receive. rec. -amuhelana (amuhelani) to receive each other. spec. exp. Ku amuhelana ka manzwi, to converse. Ku amuhelana ka ku opela, to sing together (one sing ing the solo and others singing the chorus).

-amuka1 (amukile) v.i. to breathe with difficulty, to feel pain in the chest: U amukile mwa sifuba, he feels stabbing pains in his chest. caus. -amukisa (amukisize) to cause to.

-amuka2 (amukile) v.i. to have one's fill, to be satiated. syn. kula2.

-ana-ana (ana-anile) v.i. to be ill-mannered, uncivil, forward: Mutu yo wa ana-ana, this person has no manners. syn. -ana-ana. rel. -ana-anela (ana-anezi) to show uncivility against someone. caus. -ana-anisa) to cause to Yani se si mu ana-anisa cwalo ki kuli u fumile, it is the fact that he is well off that gives that person such self-importance.

-anda (andile) v.t. (1) to freeze, to chill; to damage: Silami si andile licalo, the frost has damaged the seedlings (2) to become rigid or tight as a rope: Muhala u andile, the rope is tight. caus. -andisa (andisize) to stretch out (a rope, etc) -andala (andile or andazi) v.t. to strike, to give a blow to.

-andalala (andalalile) v.i. (1) to be rigid, to be stiff: Mulala wa hae u andalalile mi h'a koni ku talima kwa: mulaho, he has such a stiff neck that he is unable to look behind. (2) to look fixedly. caus. - andalalisa (andalalisize) to cause stiffness

-andamena (andamezi) v.t. to wait for someone or something: to expect to inherit: Ki yena ya anda-mezi situlo sa ndat'ahe, he is the one likely to succeed his father. der. mwandamena.

-andamisa1 (andamisize) v.t. to expel: to chase: Mushimani yo ba mu andamisize kwa sikolo, this boy has been expelled from school.

-andamisa2 (andamisize) v.t. to beat the Litunga's drums at fixed times: Utwa, ba andamisa, Mulena u zwela fande; listen to the drums, the Litunga is coming out of the palace.

-andauka (andaukile) v.i. to resound (as a gun when many shots are fired one after the other, or drums strongly beaten).

-andaula (andauzi) v.t. to cut into small pieces (firewood, etc).

-andeka (andekile) v.t. to stretch a reed mat between reed fishing traps. der. muandeko.

aneu! interj. stop! (used for stopping spans of oxen.)

-anga (angile) v.t. to conclude marriage negotiations by paying the usual fee to the girl's parents: Ba angile ka Kwacha i linwi, they have paid K1.00 to seal the agreement. Musali yo s'a angilwe kwa bashemi ba hae, this woman is engaged to be married.

-angabala (angabalile or angabezi) v.t. to be out of one's wits: Mutu ya angabezi h'a buleli ze nde kwa batu, a man out of

his wits does not say pleasant things to other people. der. buyanga, siyangano. rel. -anga-balela (angabalezi) to talk nonsense to, to speak nonsense in the presence of people. caus. -angabalisa (angabalisize) to drive someone out of his wits: se si mu angabalisize ki ku loiwa, it is because he has been bewitched that he is out of his wits.

-angamana (angamani) v.i. to sit or walk with the nose in the air. cf. -nanguka, -inuka. caus. -angamanisa (angamanisize) to cause to ~.

-angata (angatile) v.t. Luyana. to walk awkwardly carrying things in both hands. cf. -mangata. rel. -angatela (angatezi) to carry for someone with both hands.

-anguluka (angulukile) v.i. to cease being sad, to recover, to be well again (as after illness or a relative's death): Mulili u angulukile kwa maswabi a hae, the mourner has got over his sorrow. rel. -angulukela (angulukezi) to show pleasure again, to enjoy: Mukuli s'a angulu-kela batu, the patient shows pleasure again in being visited. caus. -angulukisa (angulukisize) to comfortt Balikani ba hae ba mu angulukisize, his friends comforted him.

ani, dem. pron. pl. (class: bu-ma, li-ma, lu-ma) 3rd degree; those: Malao ani mu a sabe! Mind those wasps!

-anjuka (anjukile) v.i. to look fixedly. syn. -ndwenduka. rel. -anjukela (anjukezi) to stare at: Bona mbututu mw'a anjukezi baenyi, look how the baby stares at the visitors.

-anya1 (anyize) v.t. to suck from the breast or cow's udder: Mbututu u anya hande, the baby is in good health (lit: the baby sucks satisfactorily) der. muanyisi muanyisezo. syn. -zwepa. rel. -anyeza (anyelize) to suck someone's cow. caus. anyisa (anyisize) to suckle, to nurse at the breast, to help a child drink directly from a cow; to allow cows to suckle calves: Mushemi u anyisa mwan'a hae, the mother is suckling her child. fig. to act in a way which will put someone in dif- ficulty, to exploit syn. -lumeha. rel. -anyiseza (anyiselize) to suckle for someone: Ni anyiseze mushimani yo, suckle this boy for me.

-anya2 (anyize) v.t. to beat, to whip, to thrash: Ni mu anyize ka papa, I beat him with a whip. U ni anyize lubaka, he gave me a violent slap. freq. -anyaula (anyauzi) to beat repeatedly and severely, to thrash: U mu anyauzi hahalu, he beat him severely caus-anyaulisa (anyaulisize) to cause or to help to beat: A ku t'o ni anyaulisa mulisana yo, come and help me to beat this herdsman.

-anya-anya (anya-anyize) v.t. to touch anything lightly: U tiise kwa ku swala, u sike wa anya-anya feela; hold fast, not so lightly.

-anyuka1 (anyukile) v.i. to be lying unconscious after being strangled. caus. -anyuna (anyuzi) v.t. to strangle someone into unconsciousness: u mu anyuzi ka baka la bu-maswe bwa hae. he strangled him because of his bad behaviour.

-anyuka2 (anyukile) v.i. to come out from behind a cloud (sun, moon, star): Ku se ku anyumukile, cwal silami si felile: the sun is warming up now, it is no longer cold. rel. pass -anyumukelwa (anyumukezwi) to get warm in the morning sun; to dry up (as the morning dew): ki ko kunde ku zuma linyunywani li si ka anyumukelwa kale, it is good to hunt birds when they are still drowsy in the early morning.

-auka (aukile) v.i. to be fostered or brought up by a relation (sometimes: to be adopted) Mwan'a ka u anuka ku kaizel'a ka, my child is being brought up by my sister.

-aula (auzi) v.t. to foster, to adopt, to bring up: Mutu yo u anuzi ba banata b lusika lwa habo, this person has brought up many of his relations. Ka anula, foster parent. Ya anulela (anulezi) to bring up for; ku anulela mutu mwan'a hae, to bring up someone's child. caus. -aulisa (aulisize) to cause to, to help to bring up: U mu anulisize kwa lindiala, he helped him to bring up some orphans.

ao, dem. pron. pl. (class: bu-ma. li- ma, lu-ma) 2nd degree; those: manaka ao ni a boni, ki a mande hahulu: I saw those tusk, they are superb.

-apala (apezi) v.i. and v.t. to dress, to wear, to put on: Kacenu u apezi hande, today he is well dressed. der. siapalo, muapalelo. (fig. mui-kapali) cf. -tina. fig. exp. Ku apala batu, to take people by surprise, to invade (as during a war).

-apesa (apesize) v.t. to clothe someone, to dress, to cover: Musali u apesize mwan'a hae sweta, the woman has dressed her child with a pullover; Munda u apesize libala, the flood has covered the plain. int. -apeseleza (apeselelize) to cover fully. rec. fig to become locked in close fighting: Banna ki kale ba apalana, the men are already coming to blows! syn. -swalana ref. -lkapesa (ikapesize) to clothe, to dress oneself.

-apuha (apuhile) v.i. to be uncovered, to lie open: Mukuli wa hao u apuhile, u mu apese kubo; your patient is lying uncovered, put a blanket on him. Malu a apuhile, the sky is clear.

-apula (apuzi) v.t. to uncover, to undress, to strip; to open: U mu apuzi ndelesi mi u mu siile mapunu, he has taken off her dress and left her naked. Ku apula buka, to open a book for someone: U tusize ka apulela sibofu buka ya sona, he helped the blindman to open his book. caus. -apulisa (apulisize) to cause to uncover or to help to open. int. -apulelela (apulelezi) to open fully; to uncover completely: U mu apule-lezi likubo za hae kaufela, he has taken off all his blankets.

-apea (apeile) v.t. (also apeya) to cook, to stew; to make boil: Ku apea bucwala, to brew beer; ku apea nama, to stew meat, der. muapei, buapei, siapeiso, muapeelo. syn. -tateha. rel. -apeela (apeezi) to cook for: Ku apeela bakuli lico, to cook food for the patients. caus. -apeisa (apeisize) to order or to help to cook: Ku apeisa lico za bafuluhi, to help to cook food for the paddlers. int. -apeelela (apeelezi) to cook all: Ku apeelela nama, to cook all the meat. ref. -lkapeela (ikapeezi) to cook for oneself.

asha! interj. expressing denial or used to deride someone

-asuka (asukile) v.i. to speak angrily and loudly; to cry very loudly (baby) rel. -asukela (asukezi) to speak loudly to: ;. Ku asukela mutu, to speak angrily to someone. freq. -asoka (asokile) to speak loudly and repeatedly. rel. -asokela (asokezi) to speak angrily again and again to someone: Muatuli a asokela ya n'a zekiswa, the judge spoke angrily many times to the accused. caus. -asokisa (asokisize) to cause to speak angrily: U asokisizwe ki mushiman'a hae, his boy caused him to speak angrily. U asokisizwe ki ku utwa manzwi a maswe, he spoke angrily because of the bad language he heard.

-ata (atile) v.i. to become more abundant, to increase, to multiply, to be common: Libyana se li atile hahulu mwa mantolo, goods have become more abundant in the stores. rel. -atela (atezi) to become abundant for someone: Mali a mu atezi, he has got plenty of money. pass. -atelwa (atezwi) to receive, to have plenty to live in abundance: U atezwi ki matuku, his illnesses are frequent and varied. caus. -atisa (atisize) to multiply to cause to increase: Tal'a i atisa busholi mwa naha, hunger causes theft to in crease in the land. Also used as an axilliary verb: Ni atisa ku kula, I am often ill. rel. -atiseza (atiselize) to increase, to multiply for: Ku maswe ku atiseza mutu litaba z'a sika eza, it is bad to charge someone with faults which are not of his doing. stat. -ateha (atehile) to be abundant, to increase: batu ba se ba atehile hahulu mwa naha, there is already a very large number of these (or such) people in the country.

-atama (atami) v.i. to open the mouth, to be wide open: Nuka i atami, the river is wide Libita li atami, the grave is open. der. muatamelo, buatamo, rel. -atamela (atamezi) to open the mouth in order to get food: Linyunywani za bana li atamela m'a zona h'a taha kwa siyaleto, the fledglings open their mouths for food when the mother bird comes to the nest. caus. -atamisa (atamisize) to cause to open the mouth: Atamisa mulomo, u nwe mulyani, wo, open your mouth and drink this medicine int. -atamelela to open themouth and be ready to catch (as a crocodile waiting for its prey)

-atameza (atamezi) v.t. Sotho. to bring near: Atameza mukuli ku mualafi, bring the patient near the i doctor. syn. -suteleza a-ta-mba-ku-ngwana, Luyana. Some day I will get my revenge. (lit. They-will-find-me.). idiom. exp. used by somebody who is ill treated.

-atuka (atukile) v.i. to be coarse, to be rough: to get discoloured: Buhobe bo bu atuka mwa hanu, this buhobe is rough in the mouth. Lisila le li atukile kapili, this fabric has faded quickly. caus. -atukisa (atukisize) to cause to: Mu sefe bupi hande, mu ka ha atukisa, sift the flour well lest it remains coarse.

-atula (atuzi) v.t. to judge, to pass sentence, to arbitrate: to condemn: Mu atule taba ye, judge this case, der. muatuli, katulo, muatulelo, rel. -atulela (atulezi) (1) to judge in favour of, to acquit: Kuta i mu atulezi, the court acquitted him; (2) to condemn or sentence to: Ku atulela mutu lifu, to sentence a person to death. caus. -atulisa (atulisize) to help to judge, to assist in trying cases: Manduna ba atulisa Ngambela, councillors assist the Ngambela in trying cases.

-atumela (atumezi) v.t. to get near: Ku atumela munzi, to get near the village. caus. -atumeza (atumelize) to cause to come near. ref. -lkatu-meza ( ikatumelize) to come near to someone (der) buikatumezo.

-atumuluha (atumuluhile) v.i. to be well stretched; to be wide: Mukwakwa u atumuluhile, the road is wide. caus. -atumulusa (atumulusize) to stretch well: Atumulusa mulomo ni kumule lino la hao, open your mouth wide so that I may pull out your tooth. Ku atumulusa mukwakwa, to widen the road

au! interj. expressing surprise: what! is that so!

awa, adv. no. syn. batili.

ayaya! interj. expressing fatigue, weariness.

-aya-aya (aya-ayile) v.i. to be unable to speak clearly through fear or stammering: Mutu yo ki wa sikukuma, u aya-aya feela, this man is stammering and cannot speak clearly.

ayeka (ayekile) v.t. Luyana. to acknowledge salutations (said of the Litunga when greeted by relatives) pass. -ayekwa (ayekilwe): Ba ayekilwe, their salutation has been accepted. caus. -avekisa (ayekisize) to order someone to acknowledge the salutation.

B

b, Generally soft. Somtimes almost pronounced as v: buhobe. After m, has an explosive sound: mba.

ba, (1) pref. pl (class mu-ba) (2) pers. pron. 3rd pers. pl. subj and obj.: they, them: Ba ni bona, they see me: u ba tusize, he has helped them. (3) rel. pron. (same class) those who: Mu tiise lipilu za ba ba lila, comfort those who mourn. (4) dem. pron. pl. (same class) 1st degree; these: Bana ba, these children. (5) poss. part. pl. (same class): Bana ba luna, our children. (6) In plural denoting respect: Bo ndate ba kula, my father is ill.

ba! interj. of instant request: Mu tise mwanana yo kwanu ba! Do bring this child here, quick!

-ba (bile) v.i. defective, used alternately with corresponding verb -li, as in dependent clauses and imperfect tenses. (1) to be: Ku ba teni, to be there. Ku ba siyo, not to be there; ba is not expressed in 1st and 2nd persons of present tense: Ni mutu, I am a person. Mu ba bande, you are good (or beautiful or handsome). In the 3rd person sing and pl' ki replaces the pronoun: Ki mutu, he is a person; ki ba bande, they are good. (2) to exist: Na li ka ba mutu, from the time I came into existence. (idiom. exp. used in denial, meaning: never, not at any time) (3) to become: Likota ze ha li ka ba ze tuna li ka be a hahulu, when these trees become big, they will bear much fruit. (4) When used as an auxiliary verb, ba gives the meaning of 'eventually' or 'until': Na ba na mu fa mali, eventually I gave him money. See also: haiba, nihaiba, kaba.

-ba ni, v.t. (1) to have (to be with): Ku ba ni mata, to have strength. Also formed by use of auxiliary verb -na ni (to sit with) in indicative and conditional moods: Ni na ni bana, I have children. Kaba ni na ni mali, kaba na mi tusa, if I had any money, I would assist you. (2) to be bound to, obliged: Nih'a lata, nih'a sa lati mutu u na ni ka sebeza, whether he likes it or not, a man is obliged to work. (3) The forms: 'ku na ni', 'ha ku na' are commonly used to express: there is, there is not: Ku na ni batu ba banwi mwa munzi, there are some people in the village. Ha ku na sico mwa naha, there is no food in the land.

-baama (baamile) or baamana (baamani) v.i. to bar the way: Noha i baamile mwa nzila, the snake is lying across the path. caus. -baamisa (baamisize) or baameka (baamekile) to cause to bar the way: U side was baameka munsi mwa munyako, do not put the pestle across the door. Ba baamisize ndembela ye fubelu ku kwala mukwakwa, they have positioned the red flag, closing the road.

-baba (babile) v.i. (1) to be bitter: Nkwinini ya baba, quinine is bitter. rel. -babela (babezi) to be bitter to: Sico se sa ni babela mwa hanu, this food has a bitter taste in my mouth. (2) to itch: Lukwekwe lwa baba, scabies itch. caus. -babisa (babisize) to make bitter: Ba babisize busunso ka lizwai le lin ata, they made the relish bitter by sprinkling on too much salt.

-babaila (babailile or babaezi) v.i. to walk with difficulty, with sore feet: Mutu yo u babaila inge ya na kulile linda, this person walks as if he suffered from jiggers (chigoes) syn. -babalika. caus. -babailiseze) to help someone who walks with difficulty: Ku babailisa mukuli, to help a patient to walk.

-babalela (babalezi) v.t. to take care of, to look after, to attend to, to provide: Ku babalela mbututu, to take care of a baby. Ku babalela likomu, to look after the cattle. der. mubabaleli, pabalelo. syn. -tokomela. rel. -babalelela (babalelezi) to take care of on someone'e behalf. caus. -babalelisa (babaleli-size) to help to ~. rec. -babalelana (babalelani) to take mutual care, to take care of each other. ref. -ipabalela (ipabalezi) to take care of oneself.

-babata (babatile) v.i. and v.t. to grope, to feel one's way, to poke, to look for a thing in darkness or under water: Sibofu si ba bata mu-nyako, the blindman is groping for the door. syn. -pupuleza. rel. -babatela (babatezi) to grope for someone. caus. -babatisa (babatisize) to help, to assist in groping: T'o ni babatise mankisi wa luna, come and help me to look for our matches (in darkness).

-babaza (babazize) v.t. Sotho. to admire, to wonder at, to praise: Ne ba mu babaza ka sishemo sa hae, they praised him for his kindness. cf. -lumba.

-babuha (babuhile) or -babuka (babukile) v.i. (1) to be singed, slightly roasted: Milili ya ka i babuhile, my hair got singed. (2) to be frost-bitten (of young plants) freq. -babauka (babaukile) to be singed all over or in many places.

-babula (babuzi) v.t. (1) to singe, to rast slightly. (2) to injure by frost: Silami si babuzi licalo, the frost has nipped the seedlings. der. sibabu-lani fig. to scold bitterly. caus. -babulisa (babulisize) to cause to singe, to help someone to burn something: U t'o ni babulisa sului, come and help me destroy the red ants with burning grass.

bafi? inter. pron. pl. (class: mu-ba) who? which? Bana ba mina ki bafi? Which are your children?

bafi ni bafi, indef. pron. (class: mu-ba) whichever: Batu bafi ni bafi, whoever these people are, whoever they may be. By extension: all, without any exception.

bahabo (sing. wa -) bona: Bahabo luna, our relations; bahesu, my relations, bahenu, Your relations.

baikale, n. pl. (batu baikale), the people of old, ancestors.

baikulu, n. pl. grandsons or granddaughters.

baikulu-ba-baikulu, n. pl. progeny, descendants, offspring, lineage. -baka (bakile) v.i. to change one's mind; to repent, to be penitent; to amend: Ni bakile, I repent. (Ku baka, used as noun means: repentance. Ku sa baka. impenitence) rel. -bakela (bakezi) to repent for, to give up: Bakela lihi za hao, give up your evil ways. caus. -bakisa (bakisize) to cause to repent (through punishment) rel. -bakiseza (bakiselize) to punish on someone-s behalf: T'o ni bakiseze mwanana yo, come and punish this child for me. int. -bakelela (bakelezi) to give up one's evil ways for good.

-bakanya (bakanyize) v.t. to arrange, to put in order, to tidy, to prepare: Lu bakanyize hande libyana mwa sintolo, we have put the goods tidily in the store. syn. -lukisa. rel. -bakanyeza (bakanyelize) to prepare for: Lu bakanyeze haenyi ndu, let us get the house ready for the guests. caus. -bakanyisa (bakanyisize) to help to: Musizana yo u ni bakanyisize lipeu, this girl has helped me to get the seeds ready. stat. -bakanyeha (bakanyehile) to be in order, to be tidy: Ndu i bakanyehile hande, the house is in good repair. int. -bakanyeleza (bakanyelelize) to put completely in order ref. -lpakanya (ipakanyize) to prepare oneself, to get ready.

Bakenisa prep; (lit: mwa sibaka-sa, in the place of) instead of~,on account of, on behalf of: U.sebeze bakenisa ku bulela, do some work instead of talking.

baki (li-) n. coat, jacket: U apezi baki ye nde, she is wearing a fine coat.

-bakula1 (bakuzi) v.t. to beat with the open hand, to slap on the face or on the body: U mu bakuzi f lilama, he has slapped him on the cheek. rel. -bakulela (bakulezi) to for someone: Ni bakulele yena, slap him for me. freq. -bakaula (bakauzi) to slap repeatedly.

-bakula2 (bakuzi) v.t. to take meal out of a mortar to be sifted. rel. -bakulela (bakulezi) to ~ for someone

-bala (balile) v.t. (1) to read: Ku bala buka, to read a book (2) to count, to reckon: Lu balile likomu za luna, we have counted our cattle. der. mubali, palo, lipalo, mubalelo. rel.-balela (balezi) to read to, to read for: to count for: U ba balele 1inolo le, read this letter for them caus. -balisa (balisize) to teach someone to read; to help someone to count. int. -balelela (balelezi) to read or count completely. inv. -balulula (baluluzi) to read or count again and again. ref. -lpalela (ipalezi) to ~ for oneself.

-bala-bala (bala-balile) v.t. to talk nonsense, to talk a lot in order to hide thc truth. rel. -bala-balela (bala-balezi) to talk nonsense to. caus. -bala-balisa (bala-balisize) to cause to talk nonsense: Tala i mu bala-balisa zenata, hunger causes him to talk a lot.

-baleha (balehile) v.i. to run away, to flee: Ba balehile nwa ndwa, they fled from the war. der. mubalehi, mubaleheli, paleho, baleho. cf: saba rel. -balehela (balehezi) to flee to, to take refuge in; to flee from: Mulena Lewanika n'a halehezi kwa Mashi, King Lewanika fled to Mashi. caus, -balehisa ( balehisize to cause to ~.

baleho, (li-) n. flight!,escape (from: -baleha)

-balekela (balekezi) v.t. to put other pots on the fire: Balekela piza kwatuko, put the pot on the fire close to the other one.

balela1 (balezi) v.t. to get into the windpipe (larynx): Mezi a ni balezi, the water has half choked me. caus. -balelisa (balelisize) to cause to ~: U ni balelisa mezi ka ku ni sehisa, you cause the water to go down the wrong way when you make me laugh.

-balela2 (balezi) v.t. to put laths in a wall or a roof: Ku balela lapa, to strengthen the grass enclosure with laths. der. libalelo or lubalelo. rel. -balelela ( balelezi ) to ~ for someone caus. -balelisa(balelisize) to help ~: U t'o ni balelisa lapa la ka, come and help me to put laths on my grass enclosure.

balimu, n. pl. ancestral spirits.

-baluka1 (balukile) v.i. to have the ears cocked (as dogs when roused by a distant sound). (Also said of people with protruding ears): Mwana ya balukile lizebe u talimeha ku ba ni butali, a child whose ears stick out is likely to be clever fig. to be all ears, to prick up one's ears.

-baluka2 (balukile) v.i. to get split off as a splinter, to be chipped syn. -pazuha.

-bama (bamile) v.i. to be irregular or roughly sewn: Museme wo u bamile, this mat has been roughly sewn. cause. -bamisa (bamisize) to sew roughly.

-bamala (bamazi) v.t. to beat, to strike: U mu bamazi ka mulamu, he beat him with a stick syn. -nata.

-bamba1 (bambile) v.t. to bind round tightly with bark, string, etc. Ba bamhile pizana ka makumba, they have bound the pot round with bark. rel. -bambela (bambezi) to ~ for someone.

-bamba2 (bambile) v.t. Luyana. to catch; to handcuff. rel. -bambela (bambezi) to hold for someone. caus. -bambisa (bambisize) to help someone to hold.

bambaba1 (bambabile) v.i. to show a bad character in speaking: Mutu ya bambabile ku tata ku mu twaelela, it is difficult to become intimate with someone who is all the time speaking in anger.

-bambaba2 (bambabile) v.i. to be hard-hearted, bad tempered. der. bubamba.

-bambana (bambani) v.i. to fight: Lu ta bambana ha u ni lwaha, we shall fight if you insult me. syn. -lwana. rel. -bambanela (bambanezi) to fight for a definite reason or purpose.

-bambeka (bambekile) v.t. to treat or regard with favour: Mulena u mu bambekile hande, the Litunga has shown him favour. caus. -bambe-kisa (bambekisize) to recommend someone, to help someone to be well-treated.

-bambela (bambezi) v.t. to bind a spear, a fishing spear etc., to prevent it from getting loose from its handle. rel. -bambelela (bambelezi) to ~ for someone. fig to force someone to stay where he does not like. cause. -bambelisa (bambelisize) to help to ~.

-bambiliketa1 (bambiliketite) v.t. to force somebody to do something against his will: Ku bambiliketa mwana kwa sa lati ku ina, to force a child to stay where he does not like. cf. -bambela, -tamelela.

-banda1 (bandile) v.i. to threaten to fight (esp. hippo or bull) (see: -ipanda)

-banda2 (bandile) v.t. to escape, to pass through a danger: folofolo i lu bandile, the animal escaped from us. der. lubandangoti. caus. -bandisa (bandisize) to help to escape, to let someone go: Ba bandisize batu ba banata, they let many people get through.

-banda3 (bandile) v.t. to strike someone on the head with the palm of the hand: Ku banda mutu lubaka, to give someone a slap on the head.

-banda4 (bandile) v.t. to cut roughly into shape, to start carving: U banda kota ku eza mukolo, he is shaping out roughly a log to make a canoe. der. mubandi, sibandiso, mubandelo. rel. -bandela (bandezi) to ~ for someone. cause. -bandisa (bandisize) to help to ~. freq. -bandaula (bandauzi) to chip out roughly: Mukeke wo u bandauzwi fela, this wooden plate has been chipped out roughly. red. -banda-banda (banda-bandile) to give a rough shape in carving.

-bandaeza (bandaezize) v.t. to clean a plate with the last portion of 'buhobe' at the end of a meal.

-bandamena (bandamezi) v.t. to watch for someone, to hide oneself in order to attack someone, to ambush: Ba mu bulaile ka ku mu bandamena, they have killed him in an ambush. caus. -bandamenisa (bandamenisize) to help to ~.

-banduka (bandukile) v.i. to split off (as an animal from a herd) to get free from harm, to escape when others don't: Lo bandukile mwa ndwa, we got through the war without harm rel. -bandukela (bandukezi) to escape in a certain way: U bandukezi fo ku nyinyani, he had a narrow escape. caus. -bandukisa (bandukisize) to enable someone to escape danger; to rescue.

-bandutula (bandutuzi) v.t. (1) to put things in order to set in order: Ku bandutula liluo la mutu, to organise the right distribution of a dead man's property. (2) to bring convincing arguments into a case: Mwa muzeko wa mubu ku tokwahala ya ziba ka bandutula hande, in a land contestation a clever witness is needed.

-bandumuka (bandumukile) v.i. to escape, to disappear.

-banga (bangile) v.t. Luyana. to nurse, to doctor, to give medicine to der. mubangi, nganga. rel. -bangela (bangezi) to nurse for someone. caus. -bangisa (bangisize) to help to ~.

-bangoka (bangokile) v.i. not to listen to, to be mischievous; to be fond of spoiling things, of fighting der. sibangoki. caus. -bangokisa (bangokisize) to cause to ~.

-bangula (banguzi) v.t. to cut barbs on fishing spears.

bani, dem. pron. pl. (class: mu-ba) 3rd degree; those: bashimani bani ba ezani? What are those boys doing?

-banja (banjize) v.t. to take grain out of the granary in order to stamp it: Ku banka mulalelo, to get out some grain for supper. der. mubanji. rel. -banjela or -banjeza (banjelize) to give someone grain from the granary for stamping.

banji, Luyana exp. meaning: the bottom is near (used in river transports when paddlers must cease rowing and start poling) cf. akalikule.

-banjo (li-) n. Eng. 'home made' guitar usually played by children.

bapala (bapalile) v.i. to plays to amuse oneself. der. mubapali papali, sibapaliso, mubapalalo, libapalelo. fig. to be in good health: Banana ba bapala hande, the children are in good health. rel. -bapalela (bapalezi) to play at, to play on; to pull someone's leg, to trifle" Ku bapalela batu, to jeer at people. caus. -bapalisa (bapalisize) to amuse, to play with, to entertain: U bapalisa mwana, he is playing with the child; u sike wa bapalisa libizo la Mulimu, you must not take the name of the Lord in vain. rel. -bapaliseza (bapaliselize) to cause to play for, at, in. U sike wa bapaliseza banana mwa ndu, do not play with the children in the house.

bapana (bapani) v.i. to be near one another: Mandu a luna a bapani hahulu, our houses are too close. der. mabapa ni.

-bapanya (bapanyize) v.t. (1) to put things side by side or to put people in one line as in a race. (2) to compare: U sike wa bapanya mutu ya lukile ni silumba sani, do not compare a good man with that rascal.

-bapisa (bapisize) v.t. to compare, to illustrate, to give an example: N'a bapisa komu ya ka ni ya hae, he was comparing my cow to his. ref. -lpapisa (ipapisize) to compare oneself to.

-bapaza (bapazize) v.t. to barter, to exchange, to offer for sale, to advertise: U bapaza komu ya hae, he is offering his cow for sale. der. papazo. syn. -fundota. rel. -bapazeza (bapazelize) to for someone.

-bapuha (bapuhile) v.i. to be well stretched: Maoma a bapuhile hande, the skin covering the royal drums is well stretched.

-bapula (bapuzi) v.t. to stretch with pegs, to peg, to put a hide on a drum: Ba bapuzi tente, they have pegged out the tent. der. mubapuli, sibapuliso. syn. -takisa. fig. to throttle someone until all his limbs are outstretched. rel. -bapulela (bapulezi) to for someone. caus. -ba-pulise (bapulisize) to help to. inv. -bapulula (bapuluzi) to take off pegs from a stretched skin, etc.

-basa (basize) v.t. to paint. to put colours on, to dye, to decorate: Musali yo u basize hande lipiza za hae, this woman has artistically decorated her pots. der. mubaso, sibasiso. fig. to transmit colour by breeding: Ki ifi poho ye basa cwana? Which bull is it that produces stock of such a colour? rel. -baseza (baselize) to paint for someone. caus. -basisa (basisize) to help to paint.

basi, (li-) n. Eng. bus.

basu ! interj. expressing fright, wonder, instant request: Mu n'o akufa basu! Do hurry up! (same as besu, basuni, basunu, which are slightly more polite.)

bata! n. Eng. butter. syn. silileli.

-bata1 (batile) v.t. (1) to seek, to look for; to wish, to require, to desire: Ni bata kama ya ka, I am looking for my comb. Mu batani? What are you looking for? syn. -tembuka, -tonoka. (2) to seek in marriage, to court, to woo: U bata musali, he is looking for a wife. der. mubati, libato, mubatelo. (3) when used as auxiliary verb means; to be very near or on the point of: Mutu yo u hata ku shwa, this person is on the point of death. rel. -batela (batezi) to seek for, in, at. caus. -batisa (batisize) to help someone to seek, to put a price upon: Komu ya hao u i batisa bukai? How much do you want for your cow? int. -batisisa (batisisize) to search carefully, to investigate. int-stat. -batahala (batahalile) to be required or wanted: Se si batahala fela ki sico, what is required is food only. ref. -lpatela (ipatezi) to ~ for oneself. rel. -ipatapata (ipatapatile) to try hard to find money with which to make an urgent purchase or payment. syn. -ibalabata.

-bata2 (batile) v.i. (1) to be cool or cold: Tisa mezi a bata, bring some cold water; kacenu kwa bata, today it is cold (2) to be empty: Ha ku na mbonyi mwa sizuma, ki mo ku bata, there is no maize in the basket, it is empty; lu fmani mwa hae kwa bata ku li poo! We found no one in the village. rel. (pass) -batelwa (ba-tezwi) to feel cool: Pula ha i nelile lwa batelwa, after it has rained we feel cool. caus. -batisa (batisize) (1) to make cool: Ndondo i batisa mezi, the pitcher makes the water cool. der. sibatiso. (2) to kill in a short time: Ha lu fita lwa fumana ki kale a mu batisa, when we arrived we found that he had already killed the man

-bata3 (batile) v.i. to be tasteless, to be insipid: Busunso bo bwa bata, this relish is tasteless.

-bata4 (batile) v.t. to strike (usually on the head): U mu batile lituma, he has wounded him on the head. rel. -batela (batezi) to beat at, in freq. -bataka (batakile) to strike repeatedly in several places.

-bateka (batekile) v.t. to hang something on a forked pole, to place under the eaves, to hold between one's legs (a drum, etc.:) U bateke swaki ya mezi kwa lifata, hang the water bag on the forked pole

bati! interj. of surprise Ha!

batili, adv. no (polite word of refusal or denial) syn. awa. (impolite not used to superiors)

-batula (batuzi) v.t. Luyana. to cut. der. sibataulo. syn. -puma. rel. -batulela (batulezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -batulisa (batulisize) to help to ~. freq. -bataula (batauzi) to cut into pieces.

-baula (bauzi) v.t. to go across a river. syn. -sila. caus. -baulisa (baulisize) to take across a river.

-bayula1 (bayusi) v.i. to overflow (of rivers and canals) freq. -bayaula (bayauzi) to overflow in many places when the flood arrives.

-bayula2 (bayuzi) v.t. to strike with a stick or knobkerry: Ba mt bayuzi fa pata, they struck him on the face. fig. to speak plainly: Ku bayula taba, to explain the matter straight forwardly

-bea (beile) v.t. (1) to put, to place, to set up: Buka ye u y'o i bea fa tafule, go and put this book on the table (2) to install: Ku bea mutu fa bulena, to crown a king. (3) to bear fruit, to produce, to yield: Likota za luna li beile hahulu, our trees have produced, much fruit. der. mubei, sibeiso, peo. rel. -beela (beezi) (1) to keep for someone: Mu y'o ni beela, go and keep some food for me, I am coming. (2) to put poison in someone's food. der. mabeela. caus. -beisa (beisize) (1) to help to put things in their places: T'o ni beise libyana mwa ndu, come and help me put things in the house. (2) to make fruitful; to have green fingers: Wena ya beisa, u t'o ni calela, as you have green fingers, please come and sow my seeds. ref. -lpea (ipeile) (1) to submit oneself: Mutu kaufela a ipee mwatasi a ba ba busa, let everybody be subject to the higher power. (2) to be self confident, to presume: Mutu yo u ipea ya lukile. this man believes in his own right-eousness.

-beba1 (bebile) v.t. to give a smooth finish to woodwork (spear handle, paddle, etc. der. mubebi, sibebiso, mubebelo. syn. -yenga rel. -bebela (bebezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -bebisa (bebisize) to help to ~ ref. -lbebela (ibebezi) to ~ for oneself

-beba2 (bebile) v.i. Luyana. to play. der. sibebiso. syn. -bapala.

-bebuluha (bebulukile) v.i. to stray from the right direction; to miss the aim in shooting: Lilumo li bebulukile, the shot has missed the target. rel. -bebulukela (bebulukezi) to turn away, to deviate towards. caus. -bebulukisa (bebulukisize) to cause to ~ : U sike wa bebulukisa mukolo, don't cause the canoe to deviate.

-beka (bekile) v.t. to cut meat into small pieces, to make biltong or thongs. der. mubeki, sibekiso, mubekelo. rel. -bekela (bekezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -bekisa (bekisize) to order or to help to ~ fig to overwork: Ba ni bekisize musebezi ni li nosi, they ordered me to do all the work alone. ref. - fig - ipekisa (ipekisize) to take too much upon oneself: Mu sike mwa ipekisa taba mu nosi, don't bear the trouble alone.

-beka-beka (beka-bekile) v.t. to spoil a child: Musali yo u bekabeka hahulu mwan'a hae, this woman spoils her child far too much.

-bela (bezi) v.t. to grind millet: Ba bela lukesha fa licwe, they grind red millet on a flat stone. rel. -belela (belezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -belisa (belisize) to assist in grinding or to order to grind.

-beleka1 (belekile) v.i. to work for wages. der. mubeleki, mubelekisi, sibelekiso, peleko, pelekiso, mubeleko, pelekelo. cf. -sebeza. rel. -belekela (belekezi) to work for someone or for some definite purpose: Ni belekela mwan'a ka mali a sikolo, I am working to pay for my child's school fees. caus. -belekisa (belekisize) to give employment, to help someone in his work. int. -belekelela (belekelezi) to be in regular employment. red. -beleka-beleka (beleka-belekike) to work for a short time. ref. -lpelekela (ipelekezi) to earn wages for one's own purpose: Ni ipelekela mali a mutelo,

I am working in order to find money to pay my tax.

-beleka2 (belekile) v.t. to file or rasp metals. der. libeleko rel. -belekela (belekezi) to ~ for someone caus. -belekisa (belekisize) to help to ~.

-belela (belezi) v.i. (1) to be transparent due to thinness or wear (as cloth or a thatched roof which lets in light; also of a forest near its edge): Kwa belela, lu tuha lu punya mushitu, we can see light through the trees, so we shall shortly be at the edge of the forest. (2) (of cloth) to be diaphanous or transparent. Lisila le la belela, this material is diaphanous.

-belemeka (belemekile) v.t. to cheat, to deceive. syn. -pelemeka, -puma, onga, etc.

-belenga (belengile) v.t. (1) to exterminate by witchcraft or war: Ki muloi, u belengile batu ba banata, he is a wizard he has killed many people. (2) to work hard, to get through a lot of work in a short time: Munna yo u belengile likota mwa litema, this man felled all the trees in the cassava garden in no time at all. rel. -belengela (belengezi) to exterminate on someone's behalf. caus. -belangisa (belengi-size) to cause extermination.

-belengana (belengani) v.i. to be visible through (as light through a thatched roof or trees): Ndu ye ya belengana, the thatch of this house lets the light through.

-beluka (belukile) v.i. to pass quickly before the eyes and disappear: Ni boni mwanana ya n'a beluka fa, I have just seen a child flashing past. der. mubelukela.

-bemauka (bemaukile) v.i. to be lured out of one's way, to be drawn on, to be led astray (as by magic power). caus. -bemauna (bemauzi) or -bemaukisa (bemauki size) to lure, to draw on, to induce by magic power: Sesi mu bemauzi ki sika mani? What has lured him into danger?

-bemba (bembile) v.t. to frighten, to terrify by threats: Mushemi u bembile mwan'a hae kuli a tuhele mikwa ya hae ye maswe, the parent has frightened his child out of his bad ways. rel. -bembela (bembezi) to threaten someone on another's behalf. caus. -bembisa (bembisize) to cause to ~.

-bembula (bembuzi) v.i. to be scared of fighting, to fear and avoid fighting.

-bena-bena (bena-benile) v.i. to go here and there, begging for food: to look for someone (as an angry person anxious to fight) der. mubena-beni caus. -bena-benisa (bena-benisize) to cause to ~

benda (bendile) v.i. (1) to be angry, to do serious damage, to be given to violence or lust (as a man set on raping women) Mwa silalo sa luna ku na ni tau ye benda, in our district there is a fierce lion. (2) to look for an object placed under the roof of a hut, to search, to look around, to find. rel. -bendela (bendezi) to be very angry with someone. caus. -bendisa (bendisize) to cause to ~. freq. -bendana (bendanile) to move angrily from place to place.

-benga (bengile) v.t. to make a slit in a grass enclosure in order to peep through, to push aside high grass or reeds in order to pass through

-benjuka (benjukile) v.i. (1) to be odd, not according to rule or standard: Mutu yo u benjukile pile (moya), this person is a queer character. (2) to be flay-footed: Mushimani yo u benjukile mautu, this boy is flay-footed. (3) to be crooked: Ndu ye i benjukile situwa, the roof of this house is crooked.

- benya (benyize) v.i. to shine. to glitter, to be bright: Masenge a ndu ya ka a benya, the tin roof of my house is shining. syn. kanya. caus. -benyisa (benyelize, today he was severely scolded lit. today the scorching sun (kazazi) has shone on him.) freq. -benyauka (benyaukile) to be frequently irritated, to be flashing again and again as lightning during a storm.

-besa (besize) v.t. to roast. der. mubesi. rel. -beseza (beselize) to roast for someone. caus. -besisa (besisize) to help to roast. ref. -lpeseza (ipeselize) to roast for oneself.

besu, besunu, see: basu.

-beta1 (betile) v.t. to carve, to hew; to plane: Ku beta mukolo, to make a canoe. der. mubeti, bubeti, sibetiso, mubetelo, libetelo. rel. -betela (betezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -betisa (betisize) to order or to help to ~. ref. -lpetela (ipetezi) to ~ for oneself: Ki na ya ipetezi ona mukolo wo, I have made myself this canoe.

-beta2 (betile) v.t. Luyana. to fold the legs of a dead or dying person.

-beteka (betekile) v.t. Sotho. to betray, to have bad designs against someone, to lead someone into trouble or danger: U betekile mwana habo, mi u mu bulaisize, he betrayed his brother and caused his death. der. mubeteki syn. -oka, -puma.

-beula (beuzi) v.t. to shave: U sike wa beula mbututu ka kabemba, don't shave the baby's hair with a razor blade. fig. to cut off: Ni ta ku beula zebe ka mulamu! I will cut off your ear with a stick. den mubeuli, sibeuliso. rel. -beulela (beulezi) to ~ for someone. ref. -lpeula (ipeuzi) to shave oneself.

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-bewama (bewami) v.i. to sit down, to approach somebody in order to give him a false statement: Mutu yani u bewami ku Ngambela ku bulela buhata, that man has approached the Ngambela to give him a false statement. der. kabewa. -beta (beyile) v.t. as: -bea.

-beyeka (beyekile) v.t. as: -beteka.

bi, (1) pref. pl. (class: si-bi) giving a noun a meaning of wretchedness: Bindu, delapidated houses, (2) pron. pl. subj and obj. (same class) they, them: Biseme byani bi lekisizwe kaufela, those poor mats have been sold out: bitapi bye, ya bi lekile ki mani? Who has bought such bad fish? (3) rel. pron. pl. (same class): those which: bisholi bye be bi bulelwa ki bifi? Who are these robbers the people are speaking of?

-biama (biami or biamile v.i. To have a bent for something, to refuse advice, to act against orders. spec. exp.: Mutu yo u biami pilu, this man is very obstinate. rel. -biamela (biamezi) to have the mind bent on: Mutu yo pilu ya hae i biamezi kwa musebezi, this person is intent upon his work. caus. -biamisa (biamisize) to cause someone to be bent upon.

Bibele, (li-) n. Eng. Holy Bible.

biemba-bya-nalikwanda n. idiom. exp. (used as a fearful oath): U pazuhe biemba-bya-nalikwanda, may you split like fragments of the Nalikwanda.

-bifa (bifile) v.i. to be angry: fig. exp. Nuka i bifile, the river is rough. der. mabifi. rel. -bifela (bifezi) to be angry against. caus. -bifisa (bifisize) to cause to ~. int. -bifelela (bifelezi) to be persistently angry against int. (pass) -bifelelewa bifelezwi) to be set against someone.

-biha (bihile) v.t. to report, to announce, to make known: Mu y'o biha taba ye kwa kuta, go and report this matter to the court. der. mubihi, piho. rel. bihela (bihezi) to report to. ref. -lpiha (ipihile) to present oneself to, to report for duty.

-bikuka (bikukile) v.i. (1) to stand up, to move: Munna yo h'a na ku bikuka kapili f inzi, this man is not going to move quickly from where he is sitting. (2) to get up-rooted (of trees).

-bikula (bikuzi) v.t. to raise, to lift up a heavy load, to up-root syn. -bikumuna rel. -bikulela (bikulezi) to lift up for someone. caus. -bikulisa (bikulisize) to help to lift up.

-bikumuka (bikumukile) v.i. to bank up, to pile up (clouds, etc.) to get lifted up: Kota yani ni i utwile ha i wa, i bikumukile busihu; I heard that tree fall down, it was up-rooted during the ngith.

-bikumuna (bikumuzi or bikumunile) v.t. to raise a heavy thing: U bikumuzi sinkuzi, he has lifted up a very heavy, stout person. syn. -bikula.

-bikutula (bikutuzi) v.t. to be lucky in catching large fish.

-bila (bilile) v.i. to boil; to ferment: Mezi a bila, the water is boiling fig. to sweat much: Ni fufulezwi maswe, mane na bila, I am absolutely pouring with sweat lit. I am sweating badly even to boiling-point. pass. to be afflicted or troubled with: Wena u bilwa ki sika mani? What ails you? caus. -bilisa (bilisize) to cause to ~. rel. -biliseza (biliselize) to ~ for someone.

-bilaela (bilaezi) v.i. (1) to be dissatisfied, disappointed; to murmur, to grumble: Ni bilaela ka mupuzo wa ka, I am dissatisfied with my wages; (2) to be anxious: U bilaela ka ya kwa sipatela, he is anxious to go to the hospital; (3) to complain, to lodge a complaint: Ni bilaela ka mutu ya uzwize mali a ka, I am complaining about the person who stole my money; (4) to be suspicious, to hesitate: Ni bilaela ka Nyambe kuli mwendi ki yena ya uzwize mali a ka, I suspect that Nyambe perhaps stole my money. Der. mubilaeli, pilaelo. rel. -bilaelela (bilaelezi) to complain about. caus. -bilaeza (bilaelize or bilaezize) or -bilaelisa (bilaelisize) to cause dissatisfaction, anxiety. ref. -ipilaeza (ipilaelize) to fear the consequence of one's own actions.

-bilauka1 (bilaukile) or-biloka (bilokile) v.i. to boil much: Mbonyi ya bilauka mwa piza, the grain is boiling over in the pot; to be much agitated: Lutaka lu bilauka mwa sibuba, the reeds are swaying up and down in the current.

-bilauka2 (bilaukile) v.i. to be unusually large (eye): Meto a hae a bilauka, the whites of his eyes make them look large and beautiful; to be turned up (as the eyes of a dying person) caus. -bilaula (bilauzi) or -bilaukisa (bilaukisize) to turn one's eyes all around (of a person in a fit).

-bilima (bilimile) vi. to move fast (as a wheel turning round quickly); to walk or dance lightly: Mutu yani u bilima inge mota, that person walks as fast as a car. rel. -bilimela (bilimezi) to move quickly towards. caus. -bilimisa (bilimisize) to cause to move quickly.

bilingana (bilingani) v.i. to get excited, to be quick-tempered: Mutu yo u bilingana fela, this person easily loses his temper. caus. -bil inganisa (bilinganisize) to cause to ~.

-bilingela (bilingezi) v.t.to use medicine in order to bewitch; to provide a charm to prevent a person from being bewitched, to remove a spell. rel. -bilingelela (bilingelezi) to bewitch on someone's behalf. caus. -bilingelisa (bilingelisize) to cause to ~.

bilu! ideoph. referring to the leap of a fish.

-biluka1 (bilukile) v.i. to come to the surface, to leap or suddenly turn over (fish) sp. exp.: Ku biluka kwa pilu, to feel like vomiting, to feel a spasmodic move of the stomach. der. bilu! caus. -bilula (biluzi) to raise sand or mud (like fish trying to hide).

-biluka2 (bilukile) Luyana. v.i. to undergo a change of shape (as human beings believed to have the power to change into beasts) der. mukubilu. caus. -bilula (biluzi) to cause to ~. ref. -lpilula (ipiluzi) to ~ oneself.

-bima (bimile) v.t. to bring misfortune or cause an accident by a spell cast over someone from a distance. syn. -shia. rel. -bimela (bimezi) to ~ against someone. cause. -bimisa (bimisize) to cause to ~.

bimbandungulu, n. pl. old broken wooden dishes.

bimingi-mingi. n. pl. small portions of fish.

-bina (binile) v.i. to dance: Ni ziba ku bina Ngomalume, I know how to dance the Ngomalume (Lozi men's dance). der. mubini, pina, sibiniso, mubinelo. syn. -funya, funyungula. rel. -binela (binezi) to dance for somebody to sing to: Ku binela Mulena, ku mu opelela lipina, to dance for the Litunga, to sing songs for him. caus, -binisa (binisize) to join someone dancing; to clap hands for someone dancing; to conduct singing. int. -binelela (binelezi) to dance for a gift or for food: Mubini yo u binelela lico, this dancer is dancing for food. red.-bina-bina (bina-binile) to dance for a short time.

-binda (bindile) v.t. to fold, to wind or roll into a ball: Mandui ba binda kanyandi, the fishermen are folding up their net. rel. -bindela (bindezi) to ~ for. caus. -bindisa (bindisize to help someone to ~. int.-bindelela (bindelezi) to ~ completely.

-binda-binda (binda-bindile) v.i. to try to do a difficult thing; to be unequal to.

-bindana (bindani) v.i. see: -bingana.

-bindekela (bindekezi) v.i. to try hard, but in vain: Lu li ka bindekela, ha lu koni, though we try hard, we do not succeed. cf. -lika.

-bindela (bindezi) v.t. (1) to cause someone to trip. (2) to take a fish by the head when caught in a net in order to kill it. (3) to steer a canoe with a paddle in order to keep it steady. der. mabindela.

bindele, n. an illness, no longer occurring, associated with superstitious beliefs.

-bindula (binduzi) v.t. (1) to move the eyes slightly: Mukuli u sa bindula meto, the patient is still conscious. (2) to stir, when making beer (namala) der. kabindu. rel. -bindulela (bindulezi) to stir beer for someone. caus. -bindulisa (bindulisize) to help someone to stir beer.

bingana (binganile) v.i. to be unable to stay still; to move continually (as a large fish etc). to work under great pressure. fig. to talk ceaselessly. caus. -binganisa (binganisize) to cause to move; to make efforts: to perform.

-binguta (bingutile) v.t. to collect the Litunga's share when fishing der. mubinguti, mubingu, mubingutelo. rel. -bingutela (bingutezi) to put aside, for the Litunga. his share of a catch of fish. caus. -bingutisa bingutisize) to order or to help someone to take from a catch the fish intended for the Litunga.

-bipa (bipile) v.t. (1) to let soaked grain ferment. (2) to keep food to one's self, to keep in store for someone. rel. -bipela (bipezi) to let soaked grain ferment for someone. inv. -bipulula (bipuluzi) to let fermented grain dry up. ref. -lpipela (ipipezi) to let soaked grain ferment for oneself.

bipelwa (bipezwi) v.i. to be constipated, to be flatulent, to have wind. fig. exp: U bipezwi ki taba, he is overwhelmed by the evidence. rec. -bipelana (bipelani) to be constipated: to be blocked (bowels) caus. -bipelisa (bipelisize) or -bipeza (bipelize) or -bipezwa (bipelizwe) to cause flatulence.

bishopu, (bo-) n. Eng. bishop.

bisikiti (Ma-) n. Eng. biscuit

-bita1 v.i. Luyana. to pas syn. -fita.

-bita2 (bitile) v.t. Luyana. to throw a wrestler on the ground: U palezwi ku mu bita, he has failed to throw him down. syn. -wisa.

bitihela (bitihezi) v.t. to plaster with dung the stopper of a container (grain container, beer container, etc) fig. to keep a secret: Taba ye u i bitihele mwa pilu, please, keep this matter secret. rel. -bitihelela (bitihelezi) to ~ for someone: U t'o ni bitihelela sifalana sa ka, come and smear my grain bin for me. caus. -bitihelisa (bitihelisize) to help someone to ~.

-bituka (bitukile) v.i. to be taken to, to be taken on a journey, or even to death (as in the case of a person who has taken the 'mitu' medicine.

-bitula (bituzi) v.t. Luyana. to take, to take with to kill fig: to take other people to the grave when one dies (said of someone who has taken 'mitu' or 'muvenabo' medicine: also said of a lion which does not die alone). rel. -bitulela (bitu-lezi) to convey for someone: U ni bitulele linolo la ka, please take this letter to the addressee for me. caus. -bitulisa (bitulisize) to help someone to take or to carry. int. -bitulelela (bitulelezi) to take away the whole lot.

-bitulula (bituluzi) v.t. to remove the plaster from the opening of a clay bin; to take out the grain from the bin. fig. to reveal hidden or long-forgotten things. rel. -bitululela (bitululezi) to ~ for someone. cause. -bitululisa (bitululisize) to help someone to ~.

-biuka (biukile) v.i. to change direction, to turn aside (as a canoe badly manned) rel. -biukela (biukezi) to turn towards. caus. -biula (biuzi) or -biukisa (biukisize) to cause to turn, to turn a canoe in a different direction.

biati, n. pl. Luyana. straps fixing a load to a stick used to carry things on the shoulder. syn. makulekelo.

-biza (bizize) v.t. (1) to call: U y'o biza bo ndat'aho, go and call your father. (2) to name: Mwanana yo mu ta mu biza mani? What name will you give this child? der. pizo, libizo, mubizezo. rel. -bizeza (bizelize) to call for someone int. -bizeleza (bizelelize) to call everybody. rec. hizana (bizani) to call each other. ref. -lpiza (ipizize) as rec. rel. -ipizeza (ipizelize) to call upon oneself: Ku loba mulao ki ku ipizeza bumai, to break the law leads to trouble.

bo, conj. sometimes: ibo, bul, however syn. kono. When following a noun or a pronoun in interrogative clauses: what about: Na bo? What about me? Likomu bo? What about the cattle?

bo, pref. pl. (class: mu-ba): Kaufel'a mina mu y'o bulelela bo ndat'a mina ,all of you go and tell your fathers. pref. of respect when addressing a single person: Bo ndate. sir (my father) pref. pl. of some nouns beginning with i, na, sha, etc: Bo imuyulu, knob-billed ducks: bo nalwange, cattle egrets; bo shakame, rabbits.

bo, dem. pron. sing. (class: bu-ma) 1st degree; this: Buhobe bo ki bo bunde hahulu, this 'buhobe' is excellent.

bo, rel. part. sing. (class: bu-ma) that, which: Butali bo bu komokisa, amazing intelligence. Also with adj accompanying nouns of same class: Buitumelo bo bunde, well appreciated thankfulness.

-boba (bobile) v.i. to walk in rather deep water.

-bobonga (bobongile) v.t. see: poponga.

-bobotoka (bobotokile) v.i. to talk heedlessly, without reserve, (as a person mourning the dead or after drinking to excess) rel. -bobotokela (bobotokezi) to speak at random to someone. caus. -bobotokisa (bobotokisize) to cause to ~.

-bofa (bofile) v.t. Sotho. to bind, to inspan: Ku bofa lipulu, to inspan oxen. der. libofo. syn. -pana. rel. - bofela (bofezi) to inspan for. caus. -bofisa (bofisize) to help to inspan. int. -bofelela (bofelezi) to inspan all oxen. inv. -bofolola (bofolozi) or -bofulula (bofuluzi) to outspan.

boi, n. shyness, timidity, cowardice: Boi bwa hae ki bo butuna hahulu, his cowardice is excessive.

-boloka1 (bolokile mwa mazoho, the pot has dropped from his hands. syn. -bolomoka. fig. exp. Lilimi li ni bolokile, I made a slip of the tongue, fig. to remain (one out of many): Bana ba hae ba felile ku shwa, ku tokwa nihaiba a li munwi ya bolokile fateni, all his children have died, not even a single one has remained alive.

-boloka2 (bolokile) or-booloka (boolokile) v.t. to pass by a person or a place without stopping; to overlook, to disregard: U boolokile munzi wa bona ka ku saba lindwa, he by-passed their village for fear of quarrels. rel. -bolokela (bolo-kezi) to offend someone by overlooking him: S'o ni bolokezi ki sika mani? Why did you pass me by? caus. -bolokisa (bolokisize) to cause to pass by. fig to deprive: Ku boolokisa mutu litukelo za hae, to deprive someone of his rights.

bololo! interj. expressing amazement at an unusual catch (fish) or shooting (birds, animals) syn. pyatiti! cabau! (from: bolomeka)

-bolomana (bolomani) v.i. to sit in great numbers: Ni fumani batu ba bolomani fa Kuta, I found a large crowd sitting in front of the Court. rel. -bolomanela (bolomanezi) to sit at, to sit in front of someone. caus. -bolomanisa (bolomanisize) to cause to ~.

-bolomeka (bolomekile) v.t. to kill many at a time (fish, animals etc.): ba bolomekile lifolofolo zen ata, they killed a lot of game. der. ka-bololo, bololo.

-bolomoka (bolomokile) v.i. to drop from the hands, to fall inadver tently: Komoki i ni bolomokile mwa lizoho, the cup has just fallen from my hand. syn. -boloka. fig. to escape: U bolomokile kwa lilumo, he got through the battle unharmed. rel. -bolomokela (bolomokezi) to drop in, at. caus. -bolomokisa (bo-lomokisize) to let fall, to drop.

-boma1 (bomile) v.t. to smash, to kill many things at once (as by lightning); to break many things at a time, to crush. syn. -pyata rel. -bomela (bomezi) to break many of somebody's things. caus. -bomakisa (bomakisize) to cause to break; to help to kill. freq. -bomaka (bomakile) to break repeatedly. int. bomakelela (bomakelezi) to break all.

-boma2 (bomile) v.i. to remain out, not to find room, to be left over: Mutise kwanu lico ze bomile, bring here the food left over.

Boma (Li-) n. Swahili. District Secretary's Office. (By ext: any place where there is such an office.)

-bomba (bombile) vi.i. (1) to be exhausted: Lipulu li bombile, the draught oxen are exhausted. syn. -tamba, -topwela. (2) (in the 'muba' dance) to pray the spirit to leave the patient alone: A lu bombe ku 'muba', let us pray to the 'muba' spirit.

bo-mbonezikai, n. pl. dwarfs.

bomu, n. purpose, deliberate intention usually taken as ill-meant: U ezize ka bomu, he did it on purpose. (see: mabomu)

bona, emph. pron. (class: mu-ba) 3rd person plural: they, them, themselves: Bona ba fitile ka nako, they themselves arrived in time. Also emph. pron. sing (class: bu-ma) it, itself: Bona busihu bo, on this very night.

-bona (boni or bonile) v.t. (1) to see, to look, to behold: Ni ba boni, I saw them; u t'o bona se, come and see this; bona, u ta holofala! Look out or you will hurt yourself. (2) to perceive, to notice: Ni bona kuli mutu yo h 'a buleli niti, I notice that this person does not speak the truth. (3) to find: Ni ka bona kai mali? Where can I find some money. der. muboni, mubonisi, pono, poniso, siiponi, ponahalo, ponahazo, mutolalibona. rel. -bonela (bonezi) to see for, to watch for, to provide: Ni ta ku bonela mbututu ya hao, I shall look after your baby. caus. -bonisa (bonisize) to show, to let see; to give light to fig to teach. rel. -boniseza (boniselize) to show on someone's behalf. int. -boniseleza (boniselelize) or-bonisisa (bonisisize) to see clearly in every detail. int. -boneleza (bonelelize) or -bonisisa (bonisisize) to look very closely, to examine. int-stat. -bonahala (bonahalile or bonahezi) to be visible, evident, clear; to appear: Mulatu wa hae wa bonahala, his fault is evident. caus. -bonahaza (bonahalize) to make visible, to show clearly. rec. -bonana (bonani or bonanile) to see each other: Lu bonani kale hahulu, it is a long time since we saw each other. freq. -bo-nanga to be accustomed to see: Lika ze, lu tola lu li bonanga kamita, these are the things which we always see. ref. ipona (iponi) to see oneself: Ku ipona mwa siiponi, to look in a mirror. fig Ku ipona mu/atu, to acknowledge or admit one's guilt. rel. -iponela (iponezi) to look out for oneself. caus. -iponisa (iponisize) to show things to each other, to show off, to appear int-stat -iponahalisa (iponahalisize) or iponahaza (iponahalize) to make oneself visible; to present oneself to, to reveal oneself (God).

-bonda (bondile) v.t. Luyana. (1) to kill, to hang up by the neck. (2) to twist 'mashandi' roots or fibre to make string; to twist bark to make rope. (3) to stir (porridge): Ku bonda ndima. to stir 'buhobe' der. mubondi, mubonda. cf. -soka. rel. -bondela (bondezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -bondisa (bondisize) to help to ~. ref. -lponda (ipondile) to commit suicide syn. -ipulaya.

-bondakana (bondakani) v.i. (1) to fall down (dilapidated house) (2) to be assembled in large numbers (as mourners, birds flocking together or cattle in a garden): Ni fumani linyunywani li bondakani mwa mulapo. I found a flock of birds grouped in a stream.

-bondauka (bondaukile) v.i. (1) (1) to attack someone with intention to cause harm; (2) to work alone unassisted: U bondaukile ndu a nosi, he built the house by himself.

-bondoka (bondokile) v.i. to be twisted (arms, legs, etc...); to be bent (tree); to be bent back (of limbs, especially reptiles' limbs.)

-bondola (bondozi) v.t. to twist the arm, to wring, to wrench: U sike wa bondola mwanana lizoho, do not twist the child's arm. fig. exp. Ku bondola litaba, to twist the truth.

-bongana (bongani or bonganile) v i. to be restless: U sike wa bongana, mukolo u ka tiba, do not move about so much, you may cause the canoe to sink. der. mubongani, sibonganyi. rel. -bonganela (bonganezi) to be restless in a place or a position. caus. -bonganisa (bonganisize) sometimes -bonganya (bonganyize) or -bonganyisa (bonganyisize) to cause to be restless, to cause to move or touch everything: U sike wa bonganyisa mulilo, do not middle with the fire.

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-bonka (bonkile) v.i. to bellow, to roar as a lion. syn. -bona2 fig. to groan, to mourn: Mwanana yo u bonkani? What is this child groaning for? cf. -tondoka rel. -bonkela (bonkezi) to ~ somewhere caus. -bonkisa (bonkisize) to cause to bonoka (bonokile) v.i. to become bare (skin); to become scratched.

bonona (bonozi) v.t. to scratch, to peel off. der. sibonwena.

-boola (-boozi) v.i. to sit properly, with folded legs, on mat; to squat: Mwanana yo u ziba ku boola hande, this child knows how to sit properly.

-bopa1 (bopile) v.t. Sotho. to tie, to tighten; to inspan: Bopa mapulu, inspan the oxen; ku bopa mbautu, to tighten a bolt. syn. -pana.

-bopa2 (bopile) v.i. to bellow as a bull ready to fight. syn. -bonka. fig. to refuse: Yena u bopa ni sikekele se i si sa hae! He refuses even to lend someone else's plough ! Mbonyi ya ka wa i bopisa, he refuses to give up my mealies. rec. -bopelana (bopelani) to bellow and get prepared to fight (speaking of two bulls).

-bopoloha (bopolohile) v.i. to refuse obstinately, to be stubborn, unruly, impertinent. rel. -bopolo-hela (bopolohezi) to be impertinent with regard to someone. caus. -bopolohisa (bopolohisize) to cause stubbornness, impertinence.

-bosheka (boshekile) v.t. to grip or clutch someone on the forearm (as when wrestling): U sike wa ni bosheka hahulu, u ka ni loba, don't hold me so hard, you may break my arm. der. luboshi. rec. -boshekana (boshekani) to grip each other on the forearms. ref. -lposheka (iposhekike) fig to be able to look after oneself when in trouble: kabe na iposheka ne ni sike na kena mwa tolongo, if I had money, I could avoid imprisonment. inv. -iposhola (iposhozi) to free oneself from someone's grip.

-bota (botile) v.t. Luyana. to smear the skin with ointment. der. muboti. syn. -sasa, -pikita.

-botana (botani or botanile) v.i. to be poor, indigent, destitute. der. mubotana, bubotana. syn. -sheba.

botela or botolo (ma-) n. Eng. bottle.

-botela (botezi) or -botelana (botelani) v.i. to alight as birds, to gather together: Linyunywani li botezi fa sihoto sa mina, a flight of birds has alighted on your thrashing floor.

-botoka (botokile) v.t. (1) to go round a corner or a headland: Ki kale ba botoka lungo, they have already gone round the headland. (2) to pass a person. (3) to escape from danger: Ki hande se lu botokile fa lilolo la likubu, good gracious, we have passed safely through a place full of hippos. caus. -botokisa (botokisize) to help someone to go round, to help someone to get over some difficulty; to pull a canoe from one place to another.

boya, n. hair growing on the body of mammals, wool, down: Lingu li na ni boya bo bunde, sheep grow soft curly hair. The plural maboya means pubic hair. cf. mulili.

boyo (bu-oyo) n. bundle of little bells which dancers wear hanging from the waist.

-boyoka (boyokile) v.i. to escape from danger.

-boyokela (boyokezi) v.i. (1) to sink (as someone walking on floating vegetation, 'matindi' grass), to go down (as in mud or soft ground). (2) to enter a house after waiting outside for a moment.

-boyola (boyozi) v.t. to detach mealie cobs from the stalk, leaving the spathe. syn. -tobola. rel. -boyolela (boyolezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -boyolisa (boyolisize) to help someone to ~. freq. -boyaula (boyauzi) to ~ in many different places of the field.

boyonga (boyongile) v.t. see: -poponga.

bu, pref. sing. (class: bu-ma). pron. sing. subj and obj. of same class, it: Busihu bu sile, the night is over; butanga ni bu zibile, I have known the slavery.

-bua (buile) v.t. to strip off the hide of animals, to flay, to skin. der. mubui, sibuiso, mubuelo, bubui. rel. -buela (buezi) to skin for someone or at a place. caus. -buisa (buisize) to help someone to skin.

buanga, n. infirmity, mental infirmity. (from: -angabala) see: buyanga.

buangano, n. insanity. (from: -angabala)

buabi, n. work of distributor (from: -aba )

bualafi, n. profession of a doctor, of a medicine man, etc. (from: -alafa)

bualelo, (ma-) small dyke made in streams to catch fish. (from: -yalela )

buanyisi, n. occupation of a wet nurse. (from: anya)

buanyu, n. accuracy (believed to be given to fishing spears by African doctors)

buapei, n. cookery. (from: apea)

buapositola, n. Eng. apostolate.

buatamo, n. width. (from: -atama)

buatuli, n. profession of a judge, manner of judging. (from: -atula)

-buba1 (bubile) v.i. to flow, to run (as water or blood): Ka sa buba, to be stagnant. der. sibuba. rel. -bubela (bubezi) to flow towards. caus. - bubisa (bubisize) to cause to flow.

-buba2 (bubile) v.i. to dwindle, to grow less, to waste away: Mbonyi ne li yenata, bupi bu bubile cwani? the grain was plentiful, why is it that it pounded down to so little? der. sibubiso.

bubako, n. thinness, poor condition in cows when not mated by a bull.

bubala, n. hard living, penury (as of newly-arrived persons who have no gardens as yet)

-bubama (bubami or bubamile) v.i. (1) to sit bending downwards to lie down quietly, (2) to lie in wait, to spy, (3) to mourn (as a widow or a widower. (4) to brood or sit on eggs as fowls, crocodiles, etc. rel. -bubamela (bubamezi) to lie in wait for someone. caus. -bubamisa (bu-bamisize) . to cause to bend downwards.

bubamba, n. hard-hearted or bad-tempered character (from: -bambaba )

-bubana (bubani or bubanile) v.i. to be famous. der. kabubo, libubo. rel. -bubanela (bubanezi) to be famous on account of: U bubanezi fa ku bulaya tau, his reputation is due to the fact that he killed a lion. caus. -bubanisa (bubanisize) to make famous, to cause someone to be praised.

bubangoki, n. vicious disobedience. (from: -bangoka )

bubano, n. fame, renown (from: -bubana) syn. butumo.

bubatana, n. beastliness, brutality. (see: sibatana).

bubebe, n. lightness, swiftness, facility. Also used as adjective: Mulwalo o bubebe, a light load. adv. ka bubebe, quickly.

-bubeka (bubekile) v.t. Sotho. to praise, to pay a compliment to. der. muipubeki.

bubeke, col. n. grain: Bubeke bwa mbonyi, grains of maize.

bubelebele, col. n. very small beads worn by women.

bubeli, n. pair: Bubeli bwa bona, two of them, both. La Bubeli, Tuesday.

bubeti, n. carpentry (from: -beta).

bubofu, n. blindness. fig. ignorance. (from: -foufala)

bubotana, n. poverty, penury. (from: -botana)

-bubuhana (bubuhani) v.i. to gather together (especially of cattle)

bubuho, n. admiration. (from: -buha)

bubui, n. action of skinning an animal. (from -bua)

bubukeleli, n. gathering, collecting. (from -bukelela)

bubukuli, n. confiscation, despoliation, exploitation (from: -bukula) -bubula (bubuzi) v.t. to glean. rel. -bubulela (bubulezi) to glean for someone. caus. -bubulisa (bubulisize) to order or to help to glean. ref. -lpubulela (ipubulezi) to glean for oneself.

bubulai, n. act of killing. (from: -bulaya)

bubuleli, n. profession of an Evangelist. (see: mubuleli)

-bubuluka (bubulukile) v.i. to be zig-zagging. rel. -bubulukela (bubulukezi) to ~ towards. caus. -bubulukisa (bubulukisize) to cause to ~: Ku bubulukisa mukolo, to cause a canoe to zigzag.

bubusi, n. manner of governing. (from -busa), administration

bubusisi, n. position of officials representing a Central Government. (from: -busa)

-bubuta (bubutile) v.i. to grope, to feel one's way owing to darkness or blindness: Ni likile ku bubuta kono ha ni sika fumana munyako, I searched by feeling but did not find the door. rel. -bubutela (bubutezi) to grope for something in darkness, to grope towards.

bubuto, n. function of a Litunga's personal servant who sleeps at his door; member of the Litunga's guard (see: libuto)

buca, n. Eng. butchery

bucabela, n. Sotho East, Orient. (from: -caba)

bucaha, n. youth, state of being young. (see: mucaha)

bucakala, n. fractiousness (especially in children) (see: cakala)

bucakolwa, n. drunkenness (see: cakolwa)

bucembele, n. old age (from: -cembala)

bucencetwa, n. loose living, prostitution (see: cencetwa)

bucica, n. Sotho. roundness. (see: cica)

buci, n. gluttony, greediness. (from: -ca )

bucwala, (ma-) n. strong intoxicating beer made from grain.

bucwai, (ma-) n. grass: Bucwai bo butala, green grass; bucwani bo bu omile, dry grass, thatch.

buemba-emba, (ma-) n. scraps, fragments, pieces.

buenyi, n. condition of a stranger, visitor or newly-arrived resident (see: muenyi)

bufani, n. generosity, liberality, bounteousness (from: -fa)

bufelelelo, n. extremity, end, termination (from: -fela)

bufelelezo, n. termination, finishing (from: -fela)

bufelo, n. end: Zazi la bufelo. the last day (death) (from: -fela)

bufi? inter. pron. (class: bu-ma) which, what sort? Busunso bufi? which relish? bufi ni bufi. whichever.

bubofu, n. blindness fig.(01 ignorance. | (see: sibofu)

bufokoli, n. feebleness, weakness debility, (from -fokola)

bufosi n. mistake, error, blunder, fault (from: -fosa)

bufubelu, n. red, redness: Bufubelu bo bunsu, crimson. (from: -fubela)

bufulo, n. pasture, grazing ground. (from: -fula)

bufumi, n. condition of a wealthy person. (from: -fuma)

bufumu, n. riches, wealth. (from: -fuma)

bufuta, n. conception (animals) cf. buhole.

bufuzana, n. poverty, indigence, penury (see: fuzana) syn. bubotana.

-buha (buhile) v.t. to look at, to admire, to enjoy the sight of, to stare at. der. mubuhi, bubuho, puho. stat. -buheha (buhehile) to be admirable, beautiful syn. -kateleha. ref. -lpuha (ipuhile) to admire oneself. syn. -invaka.

buhali,1 n. (1) anger; fierceness, severity when speaking of persons; Mutu yo u na ni buhali, this man is quick-tempered. (2) ferocity of wild animals. (3) bravery at war. (4) sharpness of cutting tools: Tipa ya ka i buhali, my knife has a keen edge. (5) fierceness (as applied to fire etc...) (from: -halifa)

buhali2, n. middle: U y'o puma nama fa buhali, cut the meat in the middle (same as: fahali)

buhalizo, n. relationship of a polygamist's wives. (see: muhalizo)

buhata, n. falsehood, slander, wicked report: Mutu yo u ni bulelela buhata, this person is telling me lies. (see: lihata)

buhato, n. sole of the foot (from: -hata)

buhazo, buhazu, n. numbness caused by a poisonous bite or sting; also by intense cold or fright. (from: -hazela)

buhedeni, N. Sotho. heathenism, paganism: Mu sike mwa tuhelela sicaba mwa buhedeni, do not let the nation stick to its pagan ways. (see muhedeni )

buhobe, (ma-) n. bread, porridge; the staple food of Malozi made with meal and water only: Ku soka buhobe, to cook the porridge.

buhole, n. (1) state of a disabled person, infirmity, chronic disease; impotency. (2) pregnancy: Musal'a hae u fa buhole. his wife is pregnant. (see: sihole) (from: -holofala)

buhule1, n. distance, remoteness.

buhule2, n. prostitution, loose living. (see: lihule)

buhulo, n. way in which somebody grows up; education. (from: -hula)

buhulu, n. (1) old age as in the expression: Munna-muhulu, musali-muhulu, an old man, an old woman. (2) hierarchy, importance of office: Ngambela ufita Kalonga kwa buhulu, the office of Ngambela is higher than that of Kalonga. (3) seniority: Ku fita yo munwi ka buhulu, to be the older. (from: -hula)

buhulu-hulu, adv. long ago.

buhulu-hulu, n. ancient times: Ya buhulu-hulu, ancient, antiquated.

bui, col. n. a number of small eggs as seen in jiggers or flies.

buifuti or buifuto, n. state of keeping oneself from evil doings. (from: -ifuta)

buikaco, n. pretence, self-importance. (from: -ikaca)

buikalabelo, n. responsibility (from: -alaba )

buikangulo, n. good health. (from: -kangula)

buikanyiso, n. pride, forwardness, impertinence. (from: -ikanyisa)

buikatazo, n. manner of trying one's best in all one's undertakings. (from: -kataza)

buikatumezo, n. way of approaching. (from: -atumela)

buikebuli, n. moulting (snakes) (from: -yebula)

buiketo, n. well-being, comfort, good health. (from: -keta)

buikeziso, n. Sotho. self-will, insubordination. (from -eza)

buikokobezo, n. modesty, humility, (from: -kokobela)

buikumuso, n. pride, excessive self-esteem, conceitedness. (from: -ikumusa )

buikungo, n. pretension. (from: -ikunga )

buikuto, n. personal feelings, personal thoughts. cf. maikuto. (from: -utwa )

buima, n. weight, heaviness. By ext: pregnancy. (from: -imela) sny bukiti

buimamelo, n. reflection on oneself, self-respect. (from: -mamela)

buimukuka, n. carelessness. (see: namukuka)

buineelo, n. Sotho. self-dedication, devotion to duty. (from: -ineela)

buinelo, n. appearance, disposition, nature; style of life, attention given to somebody or something; close observation, watching. (from: -ina)

buino, n. place, room to dwell in. fig. rank, position: Mwa Kuta, Nduna kaufela u na ni buino bwa hae, in the Court House every councillor has his appointed place. (from: -ina)

buinosi, n. (1) loneliness. (2) working single-handed. syn. buwi. (bunosi is also used)

buinuneko, n. self-praise. (from: -nuneka )

buinyako, n. self-admiration. (from: -nyaka )

buinyandisi, n. self-imposed ill-treatment; masochism. (from: -nyanda )

buinyazo, n. self-reproach, feeling of guilt, repentance apology (from: -nyaza )

buinyefuli, n. manner of bringing shame upon oneself. (from: -nvefula)

buipabazo, n. Sotho. self-admiration. (from: -babaza)

buipato or buipati, n. (1) fact of hiding oneself. (2) hiding place. (from: -pata )

buipilezo, n. appeal, right of appeal. (from: -ipileza )

buipo, n. hypocrisy, pretence, self-esteem. (from: -ipa)

buipuleleli, n. manner of talking nonsense. (from: -bulela)

buipuleli or buipulelo, n. confession, admission of guilt: Lu utwile buipulelo bwa hae, we have heard his confession. (from: -bulela)

buipuso. n. self-government. (from: -busa)

buisepo. n. self-confidence, sometimes over-confidence. (from: -sepa )

buishondi, n. peaceful disposition, state of having no troubles with other people. (from: -ishonda)

buiswalo, n. self-control, self-restraint, moderation. (from: -swala)

buitamo, n. oath, promise, engagement to do or not to do something. (from: -tama)

buitato, n. selfishness, self-seeking. (from: lata)

buitatulo, n. manner of excusing oneself. (from: -latula)

buitoboho, n. self-abnegation, self-denial. (from: -toboha)

buitukiso, n. self-preparation. (from: -lukisa)

buitumelo, n. acknowledgement, thankfulness. (from: -lumela)

buituti, n. self-teaching, self-educating. (from: -luta)

buizamaeli, n. inclination to dissolute life. (from: -zamaya)

buiziniko, n. Toka-Leya. lack of politeness due to pride. (from: -izinika )

buka (li-) n. Eng. book.

-buka (bukile) v.t. to drive away with hand or switch: Buka linzi, drive away the flies.

-buka2 (bukile) v.t. To commit adultery

bukabali, n. the art of dressing well; ornateness. (from: -kaba) (formerly the Sotho word 'bukabani' was used with the additional meaning of moral beauty, honour, uprightness which is now obsolete)

bukai? adv. how much? Ki bukai? how much is it? Litapi li leka bukai? what is the price of fish?

bukalanga, n. smallpox. syn. : nacinkwa, sikalanga.

bukana, adv. so much (referring to money) Mu mu file bukai? Ni mu file bukana, how much did you give him? I gave him so much!

bukanko, n. small barbs on a fishing spear. fig: tenacity as in a person not easily overthrown. (from: -kanka )

bukaufi, n. nearness, proximity.

bukayama, n. deceitfuliness. (see: kayama)

bukebenga, n. state of a person living as a scoundrel. (see: ikebenga )

-bukelela (bukelezi) v.t. to gather, to collect, to look after, to protect der. mubukeleli. rel. -bukelelela (bukelelezi) to gather or to collect for. caus. -bukelelisa (bukelelisize) or-bukeleza (bukelelize) to assist in collecting or gathering, to assist in protecting.

bukelekeshe, n. condition of a confirmed thief or

buketalizoho, n. fifth: La Buketali- zoho, Friday (the fifth day after Sunday)

bukima, n. thickness, stoutness.

bukiti, n. heaviness, weight: Saka ye i bukiti, this bag is heavy. fig: conisiderable amount of money or wealth: Mutu yo u fa bukiti bwa mali, this person is wealthy.

bukoba, n. servitude, slavery sny butanga

bukoko (ma-) n. Toka-Leya. African beer. (from: -kokola)

bukokwani, col. n. a large number of ants, insects. (see: kokwani)

bukombwa, n. office of a steward in the Litunga's household. (from: - kombweka)

Bukreste, n. Eng. Christianity: H'a na bukreste mwa pilu, he is not acting in a Christian way. (see: mukreste)

bukuba, n. stupidity, foolishness (not to be applied to adults) (see: sikuba) (from: -kubanyana)

bukuka, n. Eng art of cooking, cookery, syn: buapei (see: kuka)

bukunou, n. a dark reddish colour. (see: kunou)

-bukula (bukuzi) v.t. to confiscate, to despoil to exploit der: libuku, mubukuli

-bukumana (bukumani) v.i. to stand or sit motionless (as a large and frightening thing at night)

bukupa, n. condition of a cow when waiting a long time to be mated by a bull.

-bukusha (bukushile) v.t. to rub in the hands (as tobacco leaves) der: mabukusha fig: to eat out food without thought for the needs of the next day.

bukute, n. disease of the feet causing prickling pain; rheumatism.

bukuwa, n. where the white people live (near the railway line and good communications, urban area (from: mukuwa, a white man): A sa li ku ya kwa bukuwa, ki peto u yelezi, since he left for the line of rail, he never came back.

bukwala, n. skill, cleverness: Ya na ni bukwala, skillful person (see: sikwala)

bukwankweta, n. condition of a strong, heavily built man; physical prowess. syn: bukwenyepa (see: sikwankweta)

bukwasha, n. state of an unmarried person (man or woman) (see: likwasha)

bukwenuhi, n. backsliding, apostasy. (from: -kwenuha)

bukwenyani, n. relationship between parents-in-law and children-in-law. (Person standing in this relation are subject to a special state of taboo) (see: mukwenyani)

bukwenyepa, n. condition of a strong, strapping beefy man. syn: bukwankweta.

bukwetunga, n. condition and duty of a man whose wife is of royal blood. syn. bu-Ishee (see: mukwetunga)

-bula (bulile) v.t. to strip or peel the bark from a tree: bula makumba, I strip some bark rope. fig. in any contest, "ku bula makumba " means inability to overcome one's opponent, i.e. to scratch him slightly as a man peeling bark from a tree.

bulalu1, n. third: La Bulalu, Wednesday (the third day after Sunday); group of three: Bulalu bwa bona, the three of them; kalulo ya bulalu, the third part. cf. talu, silalu.

bulalu2 (ma-) n. pus.

bulamuleli, n. act of delivering or freeing from danger and fear. syn. bundamweti (from: -lamulela)

bulapeli, n. religion, piety, godliness. (from: -lapela)

bulauli, n. act or practice of divining especially by throwing bones. (from: laula)

-bulaya (bulaile) v.t. (1) to kill, to murder, to execute: ku bulaya lifolofolo, to kill game. (2) to break (earthen ware, etc...) der. mubulai, pulao, sibulaiso, mubulaelo, bubulai. cf: -timeza. rel. -bulaela (bulaezi) to kill (for someone, or in or at a place) caus. -bulaisa (bulaisize) to cause or help to kill. fig. exp.: ku bulaisa mutu tala, to starve someone; ku bulaisa liseho, to kill with laughter. int. -bulaelela (bu-laelezi) to kill the lot. rec. -bulayana (bulayani) to kill each other. ref. -lpulaya (ipulaile) to commit suicide. rel. -ipulaela (ipulaezi) to kill for oneself: U ipulaezi kaputi, he has killed a duiker for himself. caus. fig. exp. ku ipulaisa musebezi, to kill oneself with work.

bulazibi, n. restlessness in sleep causing inconvenience to bedfellows.

buleke, (ma-) n. tin can, tin pail.

bulekisi, n. occupation of a trader or a merchant. (from: lekisa)

-bulela (bulezi) vi. to talk, to say, to speak, to declare, to mention: Ku bulela niti, to speak the truth; ku bulela buhata, to lie. der. mubuleli, pulelo, mubulelelo. rel. -bulelela (bulelezi) to speak to, to tell someone. caus. -bulelisa (bulelisize) to talk to. rec -bulelisana (bulelisani) to confer with. ref. -lpulela (ipu-lezi) to confess, to avow. int. -ipulelela (ipulelezi) to speak without restraint.

bulembe, n. deadly poison put on arrows.

bulena, n. kinship, chieftainship; dignity, authority. (from: ' -lean) syn: silena

bulendele, n. thieving. (see: lilendele) syn: busholi, bulengwami.

bulengwami, n. thieving. (see: lilengwami. syn: busholi, bulendele.

buleta, n. softness, smoothness, glossiness: Ku apala ze buleta, to wear fine clothes.

buliba, n. depth applied only to water: Ku fuluha mwa buliba, to paddle in deep water.

bulibali, n. forgetfulness. syn. mupulacima (from: -libala)

bulibeleli, n. watchfulness, care. (from: -libelela)

bulikani, n. friendship, companionship (between man and woman means free love) sp. exp. Ku swala bulikani, to become intimate friends. (from: -likana)

bulikanyisi or malikanyiso, n. manner of imitating. (from: -likanya)

bulikelelo (ma-) n. the quarter where the sun sets; Malikelelo a lizazi, West; kwa bulikelelo, to the West.

bulili1, n. inner room, private part of a house, sleeping place, bedroom. (see: kalili)

bulili2, n. fine hair.

bulilo, n. plastering made of cattle dung and earth or cement; often refers to flooring. (from: lila)

bulimbwe, n. bird-lime used to catch birds. (from: -limbula)

bulimi, n. agriculture: Musebezi wa bulimi, agricultural work (from: -lima)

bulinzi, n. see: bulizi

bulisana, n. work or duty of a shepherd. (from: -lisa)

bulisao, col. n. the balls of lead filling a cartridge, shot. (see: malisao)

buliti1 n. slowness, sluggishness, unwillingness. adv. exp. ka buliti, slowly, unwillingly.

buliti2, n. the act of scaring birds away from gardens. (from: -lita)

buliululi, n. (1) the act of releasing someone from slavery or bondage; the price paid for it; atonement. (2) to take back one's property, especially land previously loaned to someone else. (3) the deliverance of mankind from sin by Jesus Christ; Redemption. syn. muliu (from: -liulula)

bulizi1 (ma-) n. hair of animals (also applied to the mane or tail of a certain species as lions, buffaloes etc...); soft hair growing on the legs, arms and chest of men. cf:. bwambo.

bulizi2, n. the art of beating drums or playing musical instruments. sp. exp. Bucwala bwa bulizi, beer due to drum-beaters after performance. (from: -liza)

bulo, col. n. worms used as bait.

bulobali, n. tendency to sleep long; sluggishness; fact of living in a dream world. (from: -lobala)

bulobalo (ma-) n. sleeping place, accommodation: baenui ba kupa malobalo, visitors ask for accommodations (fa bulobalo, on the bed or sleeping mat) (from: -lobala)

bulobeli, n. action of plundering, of spoiling, of depriving. (from: -lobela)

bulofa, n. Eng. loafing, manner of loitering about without work. (also buloba (from: -loba)

buloi, n. withcraft, sorcery, spell. fig. outstanding skill in doing any particular thing or work; magic touch in doing things. (from: -loya)

buloko1, n. fresh dung (used in plastering). fig. a lazy person.

buloko2, n. sleep: U fa buloko, he is asleep; ku lobala buloko, to spend the night; ku bona lika kwa buloko, to dream. fig. ignorance, stupidity: Mushimani yo u sa li fa buloko, this boy is still ignorant.

buloshwe, n. stupidity. (see: siloshwe)

bulota, n. beeswax. fig. softness, laziness: Yo, ha si mutu ki bulota, he is no man; he is too lazy!

buloto, n. Shwana. wheat.

Bulozi, n. (1) Western Province of Zambia; home of the Malozi people (The name Bulozi (Bo-rotse) comes from the Makololo invaders and so far has been retained to define the area ruled by the Litunga) (2) Locally, the name Bulozi is applied to the central Barotse Plain as set apart from forest areas. cf. Liondo.

bului, n. wealth, richness. (from: -lua)

-buluka1 (bulukile) v.t. (1) to keep, to save, to . keep in store: Mutu ya beleka u na ni ku buluka mali, a man in regular employment ought to save money. (2) to observe; to keep in mind: Ku buluka mulao, to observe the law. der. mubuluki, pulukelo, sibulukelo. ret: -bulukela (bulukezi) to keep for someone. caus. -bulukisa (bulukisize) to order or to help someone to keep. stat bulukeha (bulukehile) that which can be easily kept. int. -bulukelela (bulukelezi) to keep the lot. ref. -lpuluka (ipulukile) to take care of oneself, to exercise control on oneself. rel. -ipulukela (ipulukezi) to keep for oneself.

-buluka2 (bulukile) v.i. to slip out, to escape: Mwanana u ni bulukile mwa mautu, the child slipped out between my legs.

buluki, n. tailoring, sewing. (from: -luka)

bulukisi, n. the art of setting things in order, of making preparations, of mending: Ndu ya ka i nela hahulu ha i sa na bulukisi, the roof of my house is leaking; it is beyond repair. (from: -lukisa)

bulukuluhi, n. right of free choice, liberty; abuse of freedom, licence. (from: -lukuluha)

bulukwe (ma-) n. trousers.

-bulula1 (buluzi) v.t. to strip off leaves of cassava to make relish; to take off a bracelet. caus. -bululisa (bululisize) to help to ~.

-bulula2 (buluzi) v.t. to cut teeth: Mbututu yo u tuha a bulula, this infant will soon cut his first teeth.

-bulula3 (buluzi) v.i. to breathe upon, to blow air with the mouth. fig. exp. Ku bulula litaba: to speak news without discretion. rel. -bululela (bululezi) to blow air into, to inflate, to distend by blowing air into.

bululeli, n. the art or occupation of a thatcher. (from: -lulela)

bululi, n. target, the thing aimed at: Ku taba lisho fa bululi bwa sika, to get the arrow to hit the target; the bearing or true direction: Ku supa fa bululi, to point to the right direction.

bululu, n. longing for meat or fish relish: Ku shwa bululu, to have been long without relish of this kind syn: lilulu

-bululuha (bululuhile) v.i. to get inflated, to swell: Ku bululuha sisete, to have a hernia. fig. to show an angry face while remaining silent.

-buluma (bulumile) v.i. to roar (lion, drum etc...)

buluma, col. n. light skin eruptions mostly on the face; pimples, rashes.

bulumba, n. (1) condition of a ghost believed to enter into living per sons causing illness; (2) ghosts believed to be taken as slaves by witches. fig. unusual skill and quickness in doing things: Bao ki bulumba kwa ku yaha, those people are quick and expert builders (see: silumba)

bulumeli, n. profession of a believer faith generally applied to Christianity. (from: -lumela)

-bulumuka (bulumukile) v.i. to fall into small pieces, to crumble, to be friable, to fall (as leaves and fruit from a tree) fig. to die or leave a place in quick succession.

-bulumuna (bulumuzi) v.t. to break into crumbs, to cause to fall (of fruit): U sike wa bulumuna limango ze butala, don't knock down unripe mangoes.

buluti, n. profession of a teacher; buluti bwa Linzwi, Ministry of the Word, vocation of a Church minister or missionary. (from: -luta)

bulutu, n. feeling of loneliness, nostalgia.

bulwali, n. transport, conveyance; action of carrying, work of a carrier. (from: -lwala)

bulwani, n. inclination to fight, belligerence, aggressiveness (from: -lwana )

bulyangu, n. thoughtlessness, foolishness (see: silyangu)

bulyo, n. right hand side: Lizoho la bulyo, the right hand: U ni ine ku la bulyo, sit at my right hand. cf. silyo.

-buma1 (bumile) v.i. Eng. to boom, to sound as drums: Milupa ya buma mwa Muleneni, the drums are sounding at the Capital. syn. -lila

-buma2 (bumile) v.i. to become fully grown (with reference to people) cf. -kola.

bumai, n. bad luck, misfortune: Ya na ni bumai, unlucky, unfortunate person. (see: mai, nalimai, nomai)

bumameli, n. care, carefulness, mindfulness, watchfulness. (from: -mamela

bumaswe, n. evil, wrong, bad thing: Ku uzwa za batu ki bumaswe, it is wrong to steal things from people.

-buma1 (bumbile) v.i. to be wrongly perforated as a wooden handle: Muhuma wa ka u bumbile, my hoe has been wrongly perforated. caus. -bumbisa (bumbisize) to perforate wrongly: U bumbisize muwayo wa ka, he perforated my fishing spear wrongly.

-bumba2 (bumbile) v.i. to look healthy, to flourish.

bumba, n. sterility in women. (see: mumba )

bumbekuma, n. sterility in women : (see: mumba)

bumbekuma, n. prostitution. syn. buhule, bumbengwa (from: -mbekuma)

bumbengwa, n. prostitution, state of a loose woman. syn. buhule, bumbekuma. (see: limbengwa)

bumbo, n. ant-nest: Fa bumbo bwa sului, right in the nest of warrior-ants. (from: -umba)

bumbombo, n. condition of a wealthy person (see: mbombo)

bumbuti, n. profession of a blacksmith. (see: mumbuti)

bumbututu, n. babyhood. fig. carelessness in important matters: U ikeza bumbututu ka ku hanelela lika, it is childish of him to be so stubborn. (see: mbututu)

bumbwete, n. corpulency, stoutness. (from: -mbwetaela)

-bumeka (bumekile) v.i. to be lucky in being given food (of a beggar): Sianga si bumekile kacenu, the poor man has been fortunate in receiving food today.

bumenemene, n. habit of spreading false news, tale-bearing (see limenemene)

bumete, n. cooked blood of an animal used as food.

bumpale, n. ignorance, stupidity (see: mampala or mumpale)

-bumula (bumuzi) v.t. to beat. syn. -nata. fig. to breed fat calves: Komu ya ka i bumuzi mamani ye tuna, my cow has produced a big calf. caus: -bumulisa (bumulisize) to cause or to help to beat. freq. -bumaula (bumauzi) to beat repeatedly rec -bumaulana (bumaulani) to beat each other repeatedly ref -ipumaula (ipumauzi) as rec.

bumumu, n. dumbness, mutism (either by state or habit) (from: -muma)

bumwana, n. childhood. (see: mwana)

bumwelwa, n. solitude caused by the death of a parent? husband, wife or relations; condition of someone left without relations. (see: mwelwa)

bunako, n. punctuality. adv. exp. Ka bunako, punctually, done at the exact time (see: nako)

bunamelo (ma-) n. space in which each person sits or lies when gathered around the fire or resting together on a mat: Si nameli fa bunamelo bwa ka, do not stretch your legs over my own space. (from: -nama)

bunangu, n. ability to learn or catch on quickly (see: nangu)

bunanu, n. cuteness (referring to children); shrewdness (mostly applied to clever old women). (see nalinanu)

bunata, n. character of a strong man or of a person of outstanding ability, heroism stoutness (see: sinata)

bunca, n. (1) youth, early life of per sons and living things. (2) newness, freshness (as applied to foodstuffs and things in general)

bundaa, interj. expressing in large number of birds gathered together. idiom. exp. Ni fumani ku li bundaa! I found birds sitting together in large numbers.

bundalabangwana, n. vagabondage, habit of sleeping anywhere instead of returning home. (see: ndalabangwana)

bundaleti, n. charge given to a man to watch over birds before the yearly killing (sitaka) (see: ndaleti)

-bundama (bundami) v.i. to be heaped up, to be piled up: Likota li bundami, the firewood is piled up.

-bundeka (bundekile) v.t. to heap up, to pile up, to hoard, to treasure. der. libunda. rel. -bundekela (bundekezi) to heap up for someone. caus. -bundekisa (bundekisize) to order or to help someone to heap. int. -bundekelela (bundeke-lezi) to heap everything. freq. -bundateka (bundatekile) to heap up without measure. ref. -ipundekela (ipundekezi) to heap up for one-self.

bundamalume, n. Luyana condition of a man living at his inlaw's village. (see: ndamalume) syn. buyeketi.

bundambo, n. fact of knowing things well sp. exp: Naha ye ha i na bundambo ka ku i zamaya busihu, at night, there is no guide who can help you through this country (see: ndambo)

bundamweti, n. Luyana. the act of delivering or rescuing from danger, condition of someone who delivers (from -ndamwena syn.bulamuleli.

bundau, n. knowledge of local history and lore; ability to expose them. (see: ndau)

bunde, n. (1) beauty: Musizana yo bunde bwa hae bwa komokisa, this girl's beauty is astounding. (2) goodness, righteousness, virtue: Ki bunde ku amuhela baenyi, it is a good thing to be hospitable: Ku eza bunde, to beautify; mibaso i eza bunde mwa ndu, paint of various colours makes a fine decoration in the house.

bundee, n. manner of shirking one's work or duty (see: ndee)

bundiala, n. condition of an orphan or of a sole survivor; loneliness (see: ndiala)

bundiulu, n. feeling of bereavement, grief, loneliness (see: ndiulu)

bundoli-ndoli (ma-) n. spots (as referring to bird feather or materials): Lisila la bundoli-ndoli, spotted material.

-bundulula (bunduluzi) v.t. to pound for the second time. der. mubundululo. cf -lenga. rel. -bundululela (bundululezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -bundululisa (bundululisize) to order or to help to ~.

bundume, n. Luyana. courage, manliness, bravery in fighting or in war (from: -ndumeba)

bunduna, n. chieftainship. (see: nduna)

bune, n. fourth: La Bune, Thursday (the fourth day after Sunday) bune bwa bona, four of them, a group of four; kalulo ya bune, the fourth part

-bunga (bungile) v.t. to gather weeds in heaps; to collect. red. -bungabunga (bunga-bungile) to ~ hastily.

bungangalume, n. Luyana condition of a short stout man (see singangalume)

bungangi, n. profession of a carpenter (from: -nganga) syn. bu pangi

bungululwa, n. crumbs: Bungululwa bwa sitina, brick rubble.

bungulunde, n. stubbornness, unwillingness to share in community work or to carry out orders. (from: -ngulunda)

bungulundisi, n. manner of enticing people to disobey orders. (from: -ngulunda)

bunguya, n. frailty in small children and animals (often after weaning): Namani ha i sa na bunguya, the calf is no longer frail (i.e. it is full grown) (see: nguya)

bungwangwa, n. (1) practice of thieving (referring especially to cattle stolen by someone with no fixed abode) (2) condition of men who were believed to change themselves into lions in order to seize cattle. (see: lingwangwa)

buniti, n. truth, veracity; sincerity. syn. niti.

bunjambo, n. talkativeness, chattering, blabbing.

bunjanu, n. Luyana. greediness, gluttony, voracity. (see: njanu)

bunjebwe, n. poverty, penury. (see: njebwe)

bunjinja or bunjinje, n. manner of killing fish by spreading "kambeti" (poison) in lakes and ponds. also manner in which fish die off in lakes and ponds due to bad conditions cf. -yumbela.

-bunjuka (bunjukile) v.i. to protrude: Ba mu tabile ka lilumo, mala a hae a bunjukile, they stabbed him with a spear and his bowels are protruding.

-bunjula bunjuzi) v.t. to cause protrusion.

bunkinya, n. Lunda. as bulumba.

bunkolyo (ma-) n. smegma accumulating under foreskin of male organ. syn: maku.

bunkume, n. yolk of egg.

bunna, n. male organs; manhood, virility. fig. courage. cf. sinna.

bunoi, n. manner of defecating too near villages.

bunolo, n. softness, lightness: Banana ba lukela lico ze bunolo, small children ought to be given light food. fig. (1) easiness: Musebezi o bunolo, easy work. (2) meekness: Mutu ya bunolo, a meek person. adv. exp. ka bunolo, easily; ka bunolo-nolo, with extreme easiness. (from: -nolofala)

bunono, n. condition of a wild cat living alone in the bush. (see: sinono)

bunopi, n. act of picking up lost things: mali a bunopi, reward given to someone who has found a lost thing. fig. . assistance given to un-fortunate people or to someone who has lost his way. (from: -nopa)

bunosi, n. loneliness. syn. buinosi.

bunsu, n. (1) blackness, black colour: Mutu yani bunsu bwa hae inge mashala, that man is as black as coal. (2) darkness: Malu a tahisa bunsu fafasi, clouds cause darkness on the earth. fig. ignorance: Ku ina mwa bunsu, to live in ignorance. (3) heaviness of mind, sadness: Bunsu bwa pilu, gloom. (from: -unsufala)

-buntutula (buntutuzi) v.t. to discharge a great deal of excrement at one time; to have copious mo-tions of the bowels.

bunuhi, n. the practice of divining or predicting, guessing. Also witch-smelling. (from: -nuha)

bunukwani, n. Sotho. marauding, thieving; bewitching. (see: sinukwani)

bununu, col. n. small fleas commonly found on fowls and dogs.

bunwi, n. drunkenness (from: -nwa)

bunya, n. slowness, sluggishness: U na ni bunya hahulu kwa misebezi, you are very slow at your work. adv. exp. ka bunya, slowly.

bunyambuta, n. col. n. vermin that attack fowls.

bunyanga (ma-) n. Mbunda. game killed when hunting; dance after successful hunt (mostly used in plural, manyanga)

bunyazi, n. concubinage, illicit sexual intercourse: Mwana wa mwa bunyazi, child not born in wedlock, illegitimate child. (see: nyazi)

bunyefuli, n. reviling, disparagement, blasphemy. (from: -nyefula)

bunyemi, n. sulkiness, vexation, rancour. (from: -nyema)

bunyinyani, n. smallness in quantity or quality; unimportance: Bunyinyani bwa mutu, childhood.

bunzohoto, n. left hand side: Lizoho la bunzohoto, the left hand; kwa bunzohoto, to the left. syn. sinzohoto.

buaka, n. profession of a doctor or medicine man. (see: aka)

bunala, n. stubborness, restiveness (especially in cattle unwilling to be milked or tied up) (from: nala)

buinaneli, n. persistence (especially in continuing any course against opposition); to push on regardless of advice, obstinacy, (from: -naa)

bunata, n. (1) quantity, great number, plenty: U ba fe sico ka bunata, give them plenty of food. (2) crowd: Bunata bwa batu ne ba li teni, a large crowd was there.

bunanya, n. freshness of meat or fish'

bunete, n. (1) condition of an alien; (in Western Province: ignorance of local customs and etiquette! (see: munete) (2) lands surrounding Western Province and considered as more primitive.

bununda, n. outstanding skill in singing, dancing and carving.

buwanyama, n. greediness coupled with disregard for the wants of others; stinginess. (see: nwanyama) syn. butimani.

buwi, n. oneness, unity; singleness, uniqueness: Ku ina ka bunwi ha ku tusi se sinwi, living alone is not good for anyone.

buozwa, n. Sotho. fornication, loose living (especially on the part of a man) syn. buhule. (see: siozwa)

-bupa1 (bupile) v.t. to mould, to shape (as referring to clay work): Ku bupa lipiza, to make clay pots; ku bupa sitina, to make brick; to create: Kwa simuluho Mulimu n'a bupile lihalimu ni lifasi, in the beginning God created the heaven and the earth. der. mubupi, sibupiwa, pupo, mubupelo. rel. -bupela (bupezi) to shape for. caus. -bupisa (bupisize) to order or to help someone to shape. int. -bupelela (bupelezi) to complete shaping. ref. -lpupela (ipupezi) to create or shape for oneself: Nyambe n'a ipupezi Kamunu, Nyambe (God) created Kamunu for himself.

-bupa2 (bupile) v.t. to surround in great numbers in order to beat someone. cf. -bupelela.

bupahamo, n. height. (from: -pahama)

bupaki, n. testimony, witnessing, proof, evidence: Ni fe linolo la hao la bupaki, give me your testimonial; ku fa bupaki, to give evidence. (from -paka )

bupala, n. Sotho. width, breadth: Lyambai i na ni bupala, the Zambezi river is wide.

bupalelwi, n. hardship; powerlessness. (from: -palelwa)

bupama (bupami) v.i. to be lean, thin, emaciated (from hunger); illness or old age: Mucembele yani u bupami maswe, that old person looks like a skeleton.

bupangi, n. carpentry (from: -panga)

bupapati, n. flatness or flat side of anything. (from: -papata)

bupelela (bupelezi) v.i. to gather in large number (as insects); to surround in great numbers: Batu bani ba bupelezi mutu ya lekisa litapi, those people are surrounding a man selling fish.

bupelemeki, n. cheating, deceiving. (from: -pelemeka)

bupendi, n. (1) manner or art of painting (house-painting) (2) manner or art of vaccinating, of inoculating. (from: -penda) '

bupi (ma-) n. meal, flour: Hakuna bupi bwa mbonyi kacenu, there is no mealie meal today; bupi bwa likota, sawdust.

bupilo, n. (1) life, life-time: Bupilo bwa hae neili bo be kuswani fela, he had only a short life. Mun'a Bupilo, the Guardian or Master of life, God. Bupilo bwa kwa pili, the after-life, the life to come. (2) well-being, health: Lu buza bupilo bwa mina? We enquire about your health? (3) manner of life: Ku uzwa kwa hae ha ku konahali, ki bupilo bwa hae, he cannot help his stealing, it is his way of life. (4) sex organs: Ku kula kwa bupilo, to suffer from venereal disease. (from: -pila) or to have a disease that affects private parts, to have a sore on or near the several organs.

bupokola, n. military service; police (from: -pokola)

bupolofita, n. Eng. prophecy. (from: -polofita )

bupoti, n. action or habit of visiting. (from: -pota)

bupuku-puku, n. manner of a churl, of a boar. (see: sipukupuku)

bupulumuki, n. insanity, madness. Also applied to rabies in animals. (from: -pulumuka)

bupumi, n. cheating, deceiving: U ni putelezi ka bupumi, he took me in by his deceit. (from: -puma)

bupuzwa, n. grey colour; light blue truning to grey.

bupyeha, n. cowardice, fear. (see: lipyeha)

-busa (busize) v.t. to reign, to govern, to rule: Mulena-yoMuhulu u busa lifasi la Bulozi, the Litunga governs Western Province der. mubusi, mubusisi, puso, mubusezo, mubuso. rel. -buseza (buselize) to govern for. caus. -busisa (busisize) to help to govern. int. -buseleza (buselelize) to govern for ever. ref. -lpusa (ipusize) to govern oneself, to enjoy self-governing.

busa, abbrev. for: Busihu ha busa when the night is over; dawn: Habusa, the next morning. sp. exp.: Be li ka sa, hopelessness. Bu li ka sa mwa ni foseza, you offend me daily (without mending your ways).

busabelo (ma-) n. safety, security, protection: Mwa lapa la Natamoyo ki mwa busabelo, at the Chief Natamoyo's place one can find refuge. syn. sisabelo. (from: -saba)

busafa, n. carelessness, negligence; inaccuracy.

busali, n. womanhood; character or qualities of a woman; female organs. syn. sisali.

busatambi, n. Toka-Leya. condition of a deaf-mute. (see: satambi)

busawana, n. falsehood, slander, tale-bearing. syn. buhata. (from: -sawana )

buse, n. side (of river, lake, forest, village, hut, etc...) used with 'bo' and 'bwani': Buse bo bwa nuka, this side of the river; base bwani, the other side.

busepahali, n. faithfulness, truthfulness, honesty, reliability. (from: - sepa)

busepehi, n. as busepahali. (from: -sepa)

buseta, n. greyness (caused by dirt, ill-health or lack of ointment). fig. poverty, destitution.

-busha (bushile) or bushize) v.t. to go in the wrong direction, to take the wrong turn or miss the road, etc...: Ba bushize nzila, they missed the road. fig. to miss the point (in a discussion) rec. bushana (bushani) to miss each other taking different paths. syn. -shelana)

bushaa' n. area in a river where small rocks are visible above the water. (from: -shaa)

bushamba (ma-) n. small skins or reed kilt as worn by African dancers. (Also applied to any worn out kilt, rags, etc...)

bushekanu, n. Luyana. infirmity exposing someone to laughter. (from: -sheka)

bushiko, n. Luyana. blessing, good fortune, favour. der. noshiko, kashiko, place or village where there is good fortune.)

busholi, n. (1) thieving: Busholi bu atiswa ki tala, thieving is fostered by hunger. (2) greediness, state of someone who does not want to eat with other people. fig. breaking of the law (often used in connection with adultery)

bushwana, n. heritage; succession. (from: -shwana)

bushwatale, n. living alone, keeping apart: Mutu yo u pila ka bushwatale, this person does not mix with other people. (from: -shwateka)

busia, n. width: Busia bwa mukolo, width of a canoe.

busifa, n. Toka-Leya. slandering: Ku ca mutu busifa, to slander someone with evil intend.

busihali, n. what pertains to the female sex in animals. (see: sihali)

busihu (ma-) n. night: Fahali a busihu bo butuna, in the middle of the night; busihu bwa kacenu, last night; ki busihu, it is night (also used as a greeting: good night)

busili, n. act of grinding tobacco; reward given for grinding tobacco. (from: -sila)

busimba1, n. bad luck: Mutu yo u na ni busimba, nih'a ka ya kwa ku waya ni ba banwi h'a tabi se siwi, this man is unlucky because if he goes fishing with other people, he does not spear any fish. (see: sisimba)

busimba2, n. state of singing out of tune cf. malundu.

businyehi, n. damage (material or moral): Ku kelusa mutu mwa nzila ye nde, ki businyehi, to corrupt a person is to damage his character. (from: -sinya)

businyi, n. act causing damage. (from: -sinya)

busipa, col. n. skins of wild cats or other small animals worn as a kilt especially by dancers. (see: sipa)

busisani, n. thinness (for people and things in general ... and also of foodstuffs and liquids): Busisani bwa musizana yo bwa mu swanela, the slimness of this girl is very becoming; mu pazule mabala ka busisani, saw the log into thin planks. (see: sisani)

busisini, n. gums: Butuku bwa busisini, scurvy.

busiti, n. act of pounding grain; reward given for pounding grain. (from: -sita)

busizana, n. girlhood, maidenhood. (see: musizana)

busole, n. Sotho. soldiering, military training. (see: lisole)

busomi, n. mockery, making sport of, treating with derision; making love to someone out of wedlock. (from: -soma)

busula, a. lacking taste, staleness: Busunso bo bu busula, this relish is tasteless. fig. exp: Litaba za hae li busula, his report or evidence is without interest.

busulei, adv. without discrimination; Mutu yo u icela busuleni, this man eats any kind of food without discrimination, ku ipulelela busulei, to speak without restraint, to blab.

busungu, n. poison which gets into the body through a bite or sting.

busunso (ma-) n. relish, tasty sauce with which 'buhobe' is eaten. (Usually applies to meat, fish, vegetables and thick milk) (from: -sunsa) busupali, n. old age, advance age. (from: -supala)

bususu, n. deafness. (see: susu) buswa, n. (1) wealth, property, state: Ku ca buswa bwa lifasi. to enjoy the good things of the world; (2) inheritance, portion: U cile buswa bwa ndat'ahe, he has come into his father's estate. sun. lifa.

buswaeli, n. act of stabbing and killing an animal already wounded; reward requested for the same. (from: -swaela).

buswenyi, n. cruelty. (from: - swenya),

busweu, n. whiteness. (see: sweu),

buta, n. bow; ya kunupa ka buta, bowman, archer.

-buta1 (butile) v.i. (1) to lie down or crouch like cattle. der. libutelo. inv. -butuluha (butuluhile) to rise, to get up; to grow rapidly. syn. -buyumuka. fig. (1) to run head down like someone crouching (especially in a chace) (2) to crouch at the Chiefs door and keep guard during the night watches der. libuto.

-buta2 (butile) e.i. to be dense: Likota li butile mwa mushitu, trees are very dense in the forest.

butaipi, n. Eng. typing, typewriting. (from: -taipa )

butaka, n. companionship. syn. sitaka. (see: taka)

butakwa, n. drunkenness. (from: -takwa )

butala, n. (1) greenness. green colour: butala bwa matali, the greenness of leaves; (2) rawness, unripeness: Miselo mwa mushitu i sa li butala, the wild fruit in the forest is still unripe.

butale, n. iron ore or any kind of ore

butali, n. (1) intelligence, brains, wisdom: Mushimani yo u butali, this boy is intelligent; (2) cleverness in getting out of trouble: U ezize ka butali, he acted cunningly; (3) trick used to get people into trouble. syn. maseme,.(from: -talifa)

butalifi, n. knowledge, acquired wisdom. (from: -talifa)

butanga, n. servitude, domestic slavery: Butanga bu felisizwe mwa Bulozi ka 1906, slavery in Western Province was abolished in 1906 (see: mutanga) sny bukoba

butangana, n. state of being young, adolescence. (see: mutangana)

butanu, n. fifth: la Butanu, Friday (the fifth day after Sunday); kalulo ya butanu, the fifth part.

butanya, n. foolishness; wildness coupled with obstinacy; restiveness in animals: Pizi ye butanya, stubborn horse. (from: -tanya)

butapali, n. habit of touching everything: meddling; impertinence (common in ill-mannered children) (from: -tapala)

butasi, n. the lower part of anything, bottom.

butata, n. hardship, difficulty, hard life.

butelele, n. length: Butelele bwa nzila, length of the road; distance; height of persons, trees or buildings. adv. exp. Ka butelele, lengthwise, upwards.

butelisi, n. work of a tax collector. (from: -tela)

butete, n. flat land covered with flood water where canoes can take short cuts across grassy patches. syn. sitete.

butibo, n. depth (especially deepness of water in lakes and rivers) (from: -tiba )

buticele, n. Eng. profession of a teacher.

butikitibi, n. Eng. profession of a detective.

butimani, n. avarice, stinginess. (from: -tima)

butimbi, n. singing out of tune. fig. state of being slow to learn. syn. busimba. (see: sitimbi)

butobi, n. act of running away unseen: deserting, taking French leave. (from: -toba)

butokwa, n. scarcity, hence of great price or worth: Lico ki za butokwa unumwaha, food is scarce this year; gauda ki nto ya butokwa, gold is a precious thing (from: -tokwa)

butokwi, n. need, indigence, want: Ku pila ka butokwi bwa lika ku tata, it is hard to be destitute. (from: -tokwa)

butola, n. incest, act contrary to the traditional code of behaviour. (from: -tola)

butoloki, n. profession of an interpreter. (from: -toloka)

butompehi, n. honourableness, respectfulness. (from: -tompa)

butongwe, n. children's game (tag).

butoto, n. ignorance, stupidity: U sike wa ba butoto cwalo, don't be so stupid. (see: sitoto)

butu, n. humanity; the nature peculiar to human beings, also the respect due to them. (see: mutu)

butuku (ma-) n. (1) illness: Butuku bw'a kula ki bo butuna, his illness is very serious. (fig. weakness, besetting sin: Ku uzwa ki butuku bwa hae, stealing is his weak point). (2) pain: Ni utwa butuku mwa toho, I have a headache. (3) grief, sympathy. sp. exp. Ni utwa butuku hamoho ni mina, I grieve with you. Ku utwela mutu butuku, to have pity on someone, to sympathise. Ku utwisa butuku, to cause pain, to harm.

butuli, n. profession of a blacksmith (from" -tula)

butulisi, n. act of manuring, possibility of being manured: Simu ye ha i na butulisi bakeni sa sikela, this garden cannot be manured for its soil is brackish. (from: -tulisa)

butulungundu (ma-) n. rough place where ground is uneven or full of small ant-heaps and where travel is difficult.

butumo, n. reputation (good or bad), fame, renown. (from: -tuma)

butumuka (butumukile) v.i. to be startled, to feel astonishment or alarm, to be stirred up by some unexpected thing. caus. -butumusa (butumusize) to startle, to amaze or alarm; to stir up.

butuna, n. greatness, importance; superiority: Taba ye ni i bona butuna, ha ni koni ku i atula ni li nosi, this case seems to me to be so important that I cannot judge it alone.

butungi, n. depth in general. (from: -tunga )

butunu, n. scrapings from raw skins; (Butunu bwa komu bwa ciwa, scrap ings from cattle skins are edible); lisila la butunu, flanel.

bututi, n. work of a man filtering beer; reward for doing this work (from: -tuta)

butwa, col. n. white ants: Butwa bu cile libuka za ka, white ants have destroyed my books.

-butwela (butwezi) v.t. to pare the butt-end of a shaft after the spearhead or blade has been inserted. rel. -butwelela (butwelezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -butwelisa (butwelisize) to help someone to ~.

butwela, n. the work or condition of a spy. (from: -twela)

-buuka1 (buukile) v.i. to make room, to stand aside, to turn away (applied to a number of people standing together). rel. -buukela (buukezi) to stand aside for: Mulena ki yo, mu buukele neku li li linwi, here comes the Litunga, everybody stand to one side. caus. -buukisa (buukisize) or -buula (buuzi) to order to make room, to stand aside.

-buuka2 (buukile) v.i. to deviate. caus. -buukisa (buukisize) or-buula (buuzi) to cause to deviate pass -buulwa (buuswi): Mukolo wa mina u buulwa ki moya, your canoe is deviating owing to the wind. (When applied to the sandy banks of a river, '-buuka' means to be damaged by flood water, to fall off).

-buumana (buumani or buumanine) vi.i. to appear large from a distance or in darkness: Se si buumani fani ki sika mani? what is the large thing we see over there?

buuzwi, n. the act of thieving. syn. busholi. (from: -uzwa)

-buwa (buwile) or bua (buile) v.t. to flay, to skin.

buwelekeshe, n. a mass of small things taken together (as small gravel, fish bones, beads etc...)

buweta, n. Eng. profession of a waiter (from: -weta)

buyahi, n. work, profession of a builder, brick-layer etc...(from: -yaha)

buyalo, n. reed-mat spread before the canopy in a canoe or a barge as a protection against water. (from: -yala)

buyaka-yaka, n. insanity, madness. (see: siyaka-yaka)

buyambi, n. work, profession of a fisherman. (from: -yamba)

buyanga, n. bodily or mental infirmity. (from: -angabala)

buyeketi, n. condition of a man living at his in-law's village: Ku yaha buyeketi. syn. bundamalume.

buyela (buyezi) v.i. to breathe, to draw breath. fig. to come out of trouble: Cwale u ka buyela kakuli u lukuluzwi mwa taba ya pulao, he can breathe again now that he has been declared innocent in a case. der. puyelo, mubuyelelo. rel. -buyelela (buyelisize) to breathe upon somone. caus: -buyelisa (buyelisize) to help to ~ : N'a s'a shwile, kono ya sa mu buyelisa cwana ki dokota, he was almost dead and it is thanks to the doctor that he is still alive (breathing) freq: - buyaela (buyaezi) to breathe rapidly through illness or fear.

-buyaeta (buyaetite or buyaetile) v.i. to take or recover one's breath; to rest.

buyana (buyani or buyanile) v.i. to breathe hard (especially through fear). to pant caus: -buyanisa (buyanisize) to cause to ~.

buyembuluki, n. condition of a person subject to frequent changes of opinion, easily persuaded, pliable and often self-contradictory, fickleness (from: -yem buluka )

buyi, col. n. several jiggers, several fleas (also: bui)

-buyumuka1 (buyumukile) v.i. to smell bad (of a decaying body)

-buyumuka2 (buyumukile) v.i. to grow rapidly. cf. -buta. inv -butuluha (butuluhile) to grow very slowly.

-buyunga (buyungile) v.t. to eat greedily, referring to cattle or persons: Likomu li buyungile mbonyi ya ka kaufela mwa simu, cattle have eaten up all my mealie crop. der. mubuyungi. rel.: -buyungela (buyungezi) to devour someone's food. caus. buyungisa (buyungisize) to cause to eat much or to join someone in eating greedily. int. buyungelela (buyungelezi) to eat up everything.

buyuyu, n. pulp of certain fruits or vegetables (pumpkins, vegetable marrows etc...)

-buza (buzize) v.t. to question, to inquire, to ask about: U buza bakeni sa simu ya ndat'ahe, he is inquiring about his father's garden. der. mubuzi, puzo, mubuzezo. rel: -buzeza (buzelize) to inquire on someone's behalf. caus. -buzisa (buzisize) to cause to inquire. int. -buzeleza (buzelelize) to make full inquiries. caus. -buzisisa (buzisisize) to inquire carefully. rec. -buzana (buzani or buzisisize) to inquire carefully. rec. -buzana (buzani or buzanile) to question each other, to inquire one of another. freq. -buzanga to have the habit of ~. red. -buzabuza (buzabuzize) to make a bit of inquiry. ref. -lpuza (ipuzize) to ask oneself, to wonder; also as rec.

buzamaisi, n. leadership. (from: -zamaya)

buzangunda, n. inclination to disso lute life. (see: lizangunda) cf. buizamaeli.

buzibelo (ma-) n. distinctive mark (as tatoo marks, spots, carved stripes on wooden objects, etc...) (from: -ziba)

buzike n. Toka-Leya. slavery, bondage. syn. butanga.

buzikinyani, n. tickling, titillation; pricking under the skin as pins and needles; pricking to the taste. (from: tikinya)

buzingwa, n. stupidity, foolishness. (from: -singa) syn. buzizi.

buzizi, n. stupidity, foolishness. (see: sizizi) syn. buzingwa.

buzumi, n. hunting. (from: -zuma)

buzumo, n. hunting game: sibaka se ha si na buzumo, there is not much game is this area. (from: -zuma)

buzwa, n. (1) laziness, idleness, lack of energy: Mushimani yo u buzwa, this boy is lazy. (2) bluntness of tools: Silepe sa ka si buzwa, my axe is blunt.

buzwa (buzwize) v.i. (1) to grow ripe, to mature: Lico se li buzwa, the crops are already ripening. fig. completeness, perfection: Musizana yo u buzwize, this girl is fully developed. (2) to be well cooked, roasted: Busunso bu buzwize, the relish is ready to be dished up. (3) to become fermented: Bucwala bu tuha bu buzwa, the beer will soon be fermented. (4) to be suppurating (as an abcess). caus: -buzwisa (buzwisize) to give time to ripen.

buzwafi, n. manner of getting disheartened; unconcerned, apathetic. (from: -zwafa)

buzwafisi, n. manner of disheartening other people. (from: -zwafa)

bwalango, n. bark rope, network of a bier supporting the body placed on it. Also cross pieces forming the bottom of a grain-bin, or mat of tied-up sticks used as mattress or a rough bedstead.

bwalelo (ma-) n. dyke built of mud including gaps where fish-traps can be set. (from. -yalela)

bwali1, n. decaying fish made into stew or pap.

bwali2, n. disease which produces a swelling of the body.

bwalyanjo, n. (1) puberty (condition of a girl between her first menstruation and the end of the period of seclusion during which she is initiated into womanhood) (2) cocoon.

bwambo, n. soft hair growing on the legs, arms and chest of men. cf. bulizi1

bwanana, n. childhood: Ne li yo munde kwa bwanana bwa hae, in his childhood he was a good boy; childishness: Mutu ha sa hulile u lukela ku tuhela za bwanana, an adult must put away childish things.

bwanda, n. Cotton strings or wool

bwandilala, n. small dry sticks used to kindle fire. dim: twandilala.

-bwanga-bwanga (bwanga-bwangile ) v.t. to eat food greedily regardless of others; to take too large a share of things given, leaving little or nothing for others. cf. -lobela. rel: bwanga-bwangela ( bwanga-bwangezi) to take someone's food or property away; to take a share for someone's else: Ngulu yani na i bwanga-bwangela mwan'a hae, she took that share of sweet potatoes for her child caus: -bwanga-bwangisa (bwanga-bwangisize) to cause to ~.

bwanyu, n. see: buanyu.

bwatamo, n. see: buatamo.

-bweza-bweza (bweza-bwezize) v.t. to look for. syn. -bata. bwi or wi, excl. expressing darkness: Mubu u li bwi, very black soil. Mutu ya li bwi! a dark-skinned person.

bwifuto, see: buifuto or buifuti.

bwindi, col. n. pack of wild-dogs. fig. flock of small children: Ha ni lati bwindi bwa hao ku t'o bapalelanga mwa licalo za ka, I do not like your many children to play in my garden.

bwiziniko, n. Toka-Leya. pride, selfconceit. (from: -izinika)

bya, pron. subj. pl. (class: si-bi) used when the verb has no object or has a simple pronoun as object: they: Bindu bya wa, the dilapidated houses are collapsing.

bya, pos. part. pl. (class: si-bi) Binja bya hae bi bulaile kaze, his bad dogs have killed a cat.

byale, dem. pron. pl. (class: si-bi) 4th degree; those (far away) Binyunywani byale bi maswe, those birds over there are ugly.

-byama (byamile) v.i. see: -biama.

-byana (byanile) v.to. Luyana. to pass someone without meeting him; to accomplish something before one's neighbour. syn. -laka) rec. -byanana (byanani or byananile) to miss each other taking different paths. syn. -shelana caus. -byananisa (byananisize) to cause someone to pass without meeting a person.

byani, dem. pron. pl. (class: si-bi) 3rd degree; those (at some distance): biseme byani bi lekilwe ki mani? by whom have those mats of bad quality been bought?

-byanga (byangile) v.t. (1) to pick fruit or maize cobs here and there. (2) to forage; to scratch about for food (fowls) der. mubyangi. fig. to gather people from different places: Kapasu u byangile banna mwa minzi ka y'o fuluha, the Court messenger has gathered men from all villages to man a paddle barge. rel. -byangela (byangezi) to pick for someone. caus. -byangisa (byangisize) or -byangulisa (byangulisize) to order or to help to pick. int. -byangelela (byangelezi) to gather all that is left after harvest. red. -byanga-byanga (byanga-byangile) to pick up a few maize ears in one's garden. ref. -lpyanga (ipyangile) to look for food to stop one's hunger, to fend for oneself. rel. -ipyangela (ipyangezi) same meaning as ipyanga.

-byangula (byanguzi) v.t. (1) to remove, to brush off: Byangula kokwani yeo, brush off that insect. (2) to snatch: U ni byanguzi potoloto ya ka, he has snatched my pencil. rel. -byangulela (byangulezi) to snatch for someone. caus. -byangulisa (byangulisize) to help to remove or to snatch. req.-byangaula (byangauzi) to snatch from everybody, or again and again; to push in (as in a queue): U sike wa byangaula batu mwa mukoloko, do not push in to the queue; to push one's way through a crowd.

bye, dem. pron. pl. (class: si-bi) 1st degree; these: Bikeke bye se bi supezi, these bad dishes are nearly out of use.

-byobyola (byobyozi) v.i. (1) to whistle. (2) to speak foreign languages fluently: U byobyola hande sikuwa, he speaks English fluently. Also used in reference to 'lingongole's whistle (mythical snake-like monster believed to inhabit the Zambezi River)

-byokoka (byokokile) v.i. to be drawn back (foreskin) anat

-byokola (byokozi) v.t. to draw back (foreskin) (anat) syn. -shununa.

-byotola (byotozi) v.t. to take by force.

<div>C

C, c, Has the sound of the italian C which is generally like 'ch' in 'Church,' and sometimes like 'j' in 'jam'.

ca1 (cite) v.i. (1) to be burning: Mulilo u ca mwa libala, the fire is burning on the flats. (2) to get burnt or scorched: Tokomela mulilo, u ka ca! watch the fire or you may get burnt; ka ca /izazi, to become sun-burnt. (3) to be de: strayed: Munzi was Sililo u cite basihu, Sililo's village was destroyed by fire last night. (4) to get hot: Mezia cile. the water is boiling hot; Sipiya mina i cite, your soldering-iron is red-hot. (5) to suffer from leprosy: Ngetengete u cite mulilo wa Nyambe, so-and-so is covered with leprosy spots (looking like burns). der. mucisi.. rel. pass -celwa (cezwi) to have one's property destroyed by fire: Bo Nyambe ba cezwi ki ndu ya bona maabani, Nyambe had his house destroyed by fire yesterday. caus. cisa (cisize) (1) to burn, to scorch: Mu yoo cisa bucwai7i bo be sheuzwi go and burn the weeds. (2) to cauterize, to brand: Komu ye to lekile mu yoo i cisa nombolo, go and brand the newly-bought cow. (3) to press or iron clothing: Ni ka cisa papa ya ka kamuso, I will press my suit to-morrow. -cisa is also used as adj: Mezi a cisa. hot water. ret ciseza (ciselize) to upset, to harm someone by burning his property: spulumuki si ciselize bate mandu a bona, a mad man has burnt their houses int. -ciseleza (ciselelize) to burn all, to consume. fig. to exaggerate or exceed the truth: Ku cise leza taba, to speak too much, excceding the truth. stat -ciseha (cisehile) (1) to be well pressed; (2) to be completely burnt (as grass on the flats). fig to be zealous (Sotho. Rarely used now). ref-icisa (icisize) to burn oneself; -iciseza (iciselize) to be responsible for the burning of one's property int. celela (celezi) to become completely burnt.

ca2 (cite) v.t. (1) to eat: Ku ca behove ni nama, to eat buXobe with meat. sp. exp.: Ku ca ka lamba fafarri, to satisfy completely one's hunger. (2) to rust, to corrode: Sipi ye i cite mafumi, this bit of iron has gone rusty. (3) to embezzle, to appropriate by fraud: Ngete-ngete u cite maxi a ka. so-and-so embezzled my money. (4) to inherit or succeed to a title: Mweli wa ka u ka ca panda sa ka, my first-born son will inherit my property. (5) to spend any length of time: Ucile lisunda ze peli mwa Libingi, he spent two weeks in Livingstone. (6) to attend: Ku ca mukiti, to be present at a party. (7) to catch out: Taba i ka mu ca, the evidence will catch him out. (8) to bury (with special reference to the man who stands in the grave to reccive the corpse). (9) to have relations with a woman. der. muci, micomibi, siciso, sicelo, mucelo. pass. -ciwa (cilwe) to be edible: Mubula wa ciwa, the fruit of the mabula trce is edible; to be eaten: Komu ya ka i cilwe ki tag my cow has been eaten by a lion. fig. to suffer from: Ku ciwa pi ndEulu. to suffer from nostalgia, ka ciwa ki lizwalo, to be stung by con science: u ciwa kini? what ails you? rel. -cela (cezi) ka cela mute sa hae, to appropriate somebody's food, money or property: to charge an unfair price. caus. -cisa (cisize) to help someone to eat (as a patient or a child): Ni sa cisa mwanana, I am still helping the child with his food. sp. exp. Lizoho le li cisa, the right hand (lit. the hand that takes food to the mouth): ka cisa likomu mwa simu va mute, to let the cattle wander into somebody's garden: ka cisa bats Sunda, to conduct a Church Service: ka visa bate makande, to give people the news, to relate recent events. ret -ciseza (ciselize) to assist someone in giving food to a child or a sick person. int. -celela (celezi) to finish all the f-od. stat. -ceha (cehile) to be palatable: Nama ye ya ceXa hande, this meat is pleasing to the taste.

caa ! interj. used to scare away birds.

-caba (cabile) v.i. Sotho to rise (the sun) der. bucabela.

-caba-caba (caba-cabile) v.i. to skip joyfully, to hop, to jump about. syn. -shamba-shamba.

cabanombe (bo-) n. yellow-billed oxpecker (bird)

cabelela (cabelezi) v.t. to add in great quantity: Ku cabelela likota kwa pi a to put plenty of firewood under a pot: ka cabelela misisi, to wear a number of skirts one on top of another as in the Silozi fashion. cf. -cakela; ka cahelela litaba, to talk a lot! adding argument upon argument caus. -cabelelisa (cabelelisize) (likota) to help or to order someone to add fuel to the fire (also rig to stir up the argument).

-cabuka (cabukile) v.i. to sit on the ground (as a number of people resting after work or cattle lying down after grazing): Nifumani babeleki ba cabukile mwa kota, I found the labourers resting under a tree; to lie on the ground in large number (as birds).

-cabula (cabuzi) v.t. (1) to kill in large numbers (birds or game during a hunting party on the flats) (lisuloJ. (2) to leave things lying here and there without order: Mu sike mwa cabula litino za mica fafasi, do not leave your clothes lying about on the ground.

cabuu' ! interj. expressing a great number of people, animals. birds or things lying about.

cabuu2 ! interj. expressing amazement before an unusual catch (fish) or shooting (birds, game etc . . .) syn. bololo! pyatitii!

-cacalana (cacalani or cacalanile) v.i. to make a fuss over trifles like a child; to cry after being beaten. (also: -cacilikana or cacalakana) caus. -cacalanisa (cacalanisize) to cause a child to fuss or cry.

-cacameza (cacamelize) v.t. to make a canoe glide swiftly (as children racing canoes in flood water).

-cacuka (cacukile) v.i. to break out severely in spots or sores (as skin diseases). pass. -cacukiwa (cacukilwe) to develop a skin rash: Mwanana yo u cacukilwe ki muukwaukwani, this child has developed a skin rash due to measles.

-caela1 (caezi) v.t. to drive a span of oxen. der. mucaeli. rel. -caelela (caelezi) to drive for someone. caus. -caelisa (caelisize) to order or to help someone to drive.

-caela2 (caezi) v.i. to finish work (paid work). rel. -caelela (caelezi) to cease work and go to a certain place: Kacenu ni caelezi kwa mantolo, ni palezwi ka ya kwa hae, today I did not go home at lunch time, I just went to the stores after work. caus. -caelisa (caelisize) to order or to give the signal to stop work. int. -caelelela (caekelezi) to finish work for week-ends or holidays. inv. cauluka (caulukile) to return to work after the lunch break.

cai-cai! interj. expressing stubbornness. (as cakanga!)

caka-mukata, n. children's game consisting of hopping on one leg. sp. exp. Ku yemisa mote cakamukata, to give someone no time for rest (as a patient requiring much attention etc . . .)

cakala! interj. expressing surprise (at being able to jump over water): Mwanana a tula kalomba a li cakala! the child jumped over the canal to our great surprise.

cakala, n. an importunate, bothersome person: Mwanana So ki cakala, this is an harassing child; musali wa cakala, a nuisance of a woman. (from: -shakalala)

cakalala! ideoph. imitating the sound of a rattle.

cakanga ! interj. expressing stubbornness: Ku mu isa mo ki cakanga, ka mu kutisa mo ki cakanga! whatever you do you will not succeed in convincing him. syn. cai-cai!

-cakela (cakezi) v.t. to put on small skins or a head-dress as a professional dancer: Mubini u caked mashamba a hae, the dancer has put' on his dancing kilt to wear many skirts in the Silozi fashion. cf. -cabelela. caus. -cakelisa (cakelisize) to help someone to dress. int. -cakelela (cakelezi) to be overdressed, to be in full dress.

cakolwa (bo-) n. drunkard.

-cakular (cakuzi) v.t. to cut into a piece of timber (as a mortise), to l notch. rel. -cakulela (cakulezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -cakulisa (cakulisize) to help to ~.

-cakula2 (cakuzi) v.t. to strike (a match) rel. -cakulela (cakulezi) to give someone a light.

-cala (cezi or calile) v.t. to sow, to scatter seeds, to plant: Ki nako ya ka cala mbonyi mwa Mazda it is time to sow maize on the mounds. der. mucali, sicalo, mucalelo. rel.calela (calezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -calisa (calisize) to order or to help someone to ~. int. rec. calisana (calisani or calisanile) to help each other in sowing or planting calelela (calelezi) to finish sowing. inv. -calulula (caluluzi) to sow a second time where the seeds did not sprout; to transplant. ref. icalela (icalezi) to sow or plant for oneself.

cali (hi-) n. Eng. shawl, travelling rug, fringed blanket.

-calima (calimile) v.i. as -shalima or -talima.

-cameka (camekile) v.t. (1) to start brewing beer; (2) to put poison in food or beer: Mute yani u bulailwe ki mulyani o ne ba mu camekezi mwa bucwala, that person was killed by the poison they put in his beer.

-cancalika (cancalikile) v.i. to walk unsteadily on rubble or in mud. (also applied to fowls about to mate) rel. -cancalikela (cancalikezi) to walk unsteadily towards. caus. cancalikisa (cancalikisize) to cause someone to walk unsteadily.

-cancauka (cancaukile) v.i. to become torn or worn out: Litino za ka se li cancaukile, my clothes are already torn into shreds.

-cancaula (cancauzi) v.t. (1) to tear into shreds or break into pieces with a cutting tool. (2) to wound a person to death. rel. -cancaulela (cancaulezi) to tear someone's clothes into shreds. int. -cancaule Ilela (cancaulekezi) to tearcomple- ltelyl

-caniba (canibile) v.i. Luyana. to besmall in size; to be short in quantity.

-cankaula (cankauzi) v.t. to hoe asmall piece of land (not cuttingdeeply). fig. to be averse to hoeing l gardens: Musali yo u buzwa, haa limi, u cankaulafela, this woman is l lazy, she does not cultivate, but just scratches the ground. rel. -cankaulela (cankauiezi) to help someone to hoe.

-cankula (cankuzi) v.t. as-cankaula.

-cafia-cafia (cana-cafiile) v.i. to try not to fall when wrestling, to keep one's balance when pushed.

-cafiiliketa (cafiiliketite) v.i. to try hard to do or get something without success: Ni li ka caRiliketa Kwacha ya ka kuli ba nife nama, ba hana! try as I might. I did not succeed in buying meat because of the long queue.

cao-cao, adv. singly, by oneself alone: Ni ezize musebezi wo cao-cao nafela ni nosi, I have done this job single-handed.

capu (li-) n. axe. syn. silepe. cfi mufinyana.

-capuka (capukile) v.i. to walk in great numbers as people dispersing after a gathering.

-capulula (capuluzi) v.t. to buy a lot of clothing at one time.

-caputuka (caputukile) v.i. (1) to walk in large groups following each other at short intervals. (2) to be bleeding profusely: Mutuyo usa caputuka mali a mahata, this man is still bleeding a lot. cf. -tuputuka.

capuu! interj. expressing surprise at a large number of people walking together. cf. cicaa!

-capwaila (capwaezi) v.i. to paddie slowly and lazily. syn. -njapwanga.

-cata (catile) v.t. to give fingerprints. der. mucato. syn. nyatela. fig. to perform a civil marriage. caus. -catisa (catisize) to take finger-prints. fig to take people to the registrar (of marriage).

-caula1 (cauzi) v.i. to march as soldiers, to do physical exercise. der. mucaulisi, mucaulisezo, mucaulelo. caus. -caulisa (caulisize) to drill or exercise soldiers, pupils.

-caula2 (cauzi) v.i. to utter sharp and uninterrupted barking (as a dog chasing game). cf. -huhula.

-caya (cacile) v.t. Zulu. to beat. der. macayazonke.

-cebana (cebanile or cebani) v.i. Toka-Leya. to look around when being spoken to. freq. -cebauka (cebaukile) to look about on all sides. fig. to beat someone all over. cebu-cebu (bo-) n. a keen-witted child (especially a girl); a crafty old womall.

-ceka (cekile) v.t. to cut with a knife; to cut 'matindi' grass with a sickle; to cut meat into small pieces. red. -cekaceka (ceka-cekile) to cut hurriedly.

-cekeca (cekecile) v.i. to be shaky or loose. see: -shekesha.

-ceketa (ceketile) v.t. to backbite. syn. -seba.

cekisi or cekesi (li-) n. sickle.

-celuka (celukile) v.i. (1) to be absent for a long time: S'a il'o celuka lilimo ze peli mwa bukuwa, he hasvbeen away for two years on the line of rail. (2) to be a long time without getting married or employed: Musali yo s'a celukile lilimo zeh ata a sa nyalwi, this woman has been unmarried for many years now.

-cembala (cembalile) v.i. to grow old or to be affected by age. der. mucembele. syn. -supala. rel.-cembalela (cembalezi) to grow old in or at (a place): U cembalezi mwa mutu.ro, he has grown old in zovernment Service. caus. -cembalisa (cembalisize) to cause someone to grow old.

cencele ! interj. to surprise when stopping suddenly (as cincili!)

-cenceleka (cencelekile) v.i. to stop when coming across something unexpected, to hesitate when in fear or danger, not to know what to do next. caus. -cencelekisa (cencelekisize) to cause to stop or to hesitate.

-cencemana (cencemani) v.i. to hesitate between two possible ways (e.g to stand and fight, or to run away): Ha bona tau sa cencemana fela. when he saw the lion, he stood wavering.

cencetwa (ma-) n. a loose woman. (sce. Iicencetwa)

-cenjela (cenjezi) v.i. to know how to foresce trouble and shun it. der. kacenjela.

-ceputuka (ceputukile) v.i. to become loose (as string or rope when drying up)

-ciana (cianile) v.i. to squeak (as chicks or small children)

-cibala (cibalile) v.i. to be on the point of shedding tears. caus.-cibalisa (cibalisize) to cause someone to shed tears.

-cibilika (cibilikile) v.i. to make haste, to hurry up, to be quick when working. cf. -akufa.

cica, adj. Sotho. round: Kweli ha i li fia busweu ki ye cica, when the moon is full it is round.

cicaa! interj. expressing surprise at a great number of canoes gathered together. ef. eapuu!

-eieala (eiealile) v.i. to be scattered all over,

-eieakeka (ciealekile) v.t. to scatter all over carelessiy: Mu sike mwa cicaleka libvana mwa ndu, don't scatter things carelessly all over the house.

-eiiketa (eiiketite) v.t. to worry someone by begging persistently.

-eiimana (ciimani or eiimanine) v.i. to stand heediess of danger (as someone in front of a moving car or train); to get too near a guest or important person.

eika (li-) n. mortar, stamping block. -cika (cikile) v.i. to jump in a dance. caus. -eikisa (cikisize) to ride a child on one's knce.

-eikela (cikezi) v.t. (1)to fill up to a certain point: U xele ku t'o cikela mo, fill up to here; (2) to work to a given extent: U /ime simu ku t'o cikela mo, hoe the garden up to this point.

-eikimana (eikimani or eikimanine) v.i. to be about half full: Mezi a cikimanine fela mwa hemele, the bucket is only half full of water der. licika. caus. -cikimanisa (eikimanisize) to half-fill a container. fig to order someone to work to a certain extent.

-eikimeka leikimekile) v.t. as -eikimanisa

-eila (eilile) v.i. Luyana. to fear, to be afraid of. syn. -saba.

-cilana (cilani) v.i. Luyana. to live well or be in good health (this word is only used in reference to the Litunga and members of his family in charge of Nalolo, Mwandi, Libonda, Naliele and Kaunga). pass -cilanwa: Kwa MuleneXii kwa cilanwa, at the Capital all goes well. eaus. -cilanisa (cilanisize) to wish the Litunga good health (This is the formal greeting to be used when writing or con veying an oral message to the Litunga.)

cileka (bo-) n. kind of bulb used as a ball which in the cileke game has to be hit with pointed sticks. (see: tindi)

cimbaa! interj. expressing surprise at many things floating on the surface of water.

-cimba-cimba (cimba-cimbami) v.i. to be floating.

cimbama (cimbami) v.i. to be in water, to bathe, to swim. der. mucimbami. syn. -tumuka. cf. -yuyuka. inv. -cimbuka (cimbukile) to rise to the surface, to float: Litapi li cEmbukile mwa lisa, poisoned fish have risen to the surface of the lake. fig to emerge or rise out of a low condition (fo poverty or want).

-cimbeka (cimbekile) v.t. to float something in water, to soak or dip lightly: U y'o cimbeka litino za hao mwa mezi, go and soak your clothes in water, Ku cimbekafela lilabo, to paddie lightly on the surface in order to slow down the speed of a canoe. inv. -cimbula (cimbuzi) to take or help out of water: Ku cEmbula mbonyi mwa mezi, to harvest flooded maize; ku cEmbula mutu mwa mezi, to rescue a person from drowning. fig to help someone out of a low condition. rel. -cimbulela (cimbulezi) to assist someone in taking something out of water. caus. -cibulisa (cimbulisize) to help to ~.

cimbu-cimbu, adv. moderately, tolerably, passably: Kacenu, se li cimbu-cEmbu, u hola mali a mahata he is tolerably well off today and earns quite a lot of money.

-cinala (cinalile) v.i. to become a changed person, to turn over a new leaf, to become settled. caus. cinalisa (cinalisize) or -cinaleka (cinalekile) or -cinaza (cinalize) to help someone to improve or mend his ways.

-cinca (cincize or cincile) v.t. Eng (1) to change, to make dit'ferent: Ku cinca muXupulo, to change one's mind; ku cinca liapalo, to change clothes; ku cinca mali, to change money. (2) to barter or exchange: Ni cincize pulu ya ka sitole, I have exchanged my ox for a heifer. der. cinci. rel. -cindeza (cincelize) or cincela (cincelize) to change something for someone. caus. -cincisa (cincisize) to cause or to help to change. stat. -cinceha (cincehile) to change. der. cinceho. int. -cinceleza (cincehile) to change everything. rec. -cincana (cincani or cincanile) to exchange, to give and take mutually. red. -cinca-cinca (cinca-cincize) to change often, to be in constant transformation.

cinceho (li-) n. transformation (from: -cinca)

cinci (ma-) n. change (money) (from: -cinca)

cincili! interj. as cencele!

-cincilika (cincilikile) v.i. as-cenceleka.

-cincilimana (cincilimani or cincilimanine) as-cencemana.

-cinela (cinezi) v.i. to remain raw though long on the fire (as vegetable marrows); to stop growing on account of excessive heat (as plants); to grow slowly (as under fed children) fig. to be intractable (as a child used to beating); to be insensible, hardened: Ni li ka mu nata mwanana yo h 'a utwi kakuli s 'a cinezi, although I beat him often this child does not obey, becaus he is hardened to it. syn. -shilela. caus. -cinelisa (cinelisize) or-cineza (cinelize) fig to render insensible: U. sike wa natanga mwanana yo u ta mu cineza, don't beat this child too often or you will make him insensible.

-cingaira (cingani or cinganile) v.i. to be impolite, to show a lack of respect. der. sicingani.

-cinkilimana (cinkilimani) v.i. ascincilimana and -cencemana.

-ciina2 (cinile) v.i. (1) to refuse to give or to return something lent. (2) to strike (as discontented labourers). rel. -cifiela (cinezi) to be uncivil to elders. caus. -ciinisa (ciinisize) to cause insubordination.

-ciina2 (ciiiile) v.t. to touch or poke lightly: U sike wa ni ciSa ka munwana, don't poke me with your finger! red. -ciina-cina (cina-cinile) to poke here and there. re . -lcina (iciinile) to poke oneself accidentally in the eye: Mwanana yo u icini/e munwana mwa lito, this child poked himself in the eye.

-ciireka (cinekile) v.t. (1) to halfbeach a canoe; to half do things. (2) to pass lightly over a case without looking into it. rel. -cinekela (cinekezi) to beach at: Muko/o mu u cinekezi kai? where did you beach the canoe? fig to have a first look at: Fa Kuta ba ciSekezi litaba fahali, at the Court they just touched the matter without going into it.

cinili ! interj. expressing sudden amazement, bewilderment. syn. cuca !

-cipa (cipile) v.i. Eng. to become cheap, to go down in price: Sapili lika ne li cipEle kufita kacenu, in the past, things were cheaper than today. Also refers to poor quality or small value: masila a cipEle a pazuha kapEli. material of bad quality is quickly torn to pieces. der. macipisa. fig. to be of a pliant, docile nature: Yena ki mutu ya cipEle. h'a na tata; he is a man of docile nature he has nothing of a strong-headed chap, caus. -cipisa (cipisize) to make cheap, to lower . the price or quality of; to lower the reputation of: Mu sike mwa cipisa musebezi wa mina. do not lower the quality of your work. rel. cipiseza (cipiselize) to cheapen for someone: Kabe mu ni cipiseza kubo ye, ne ni ta i leka, if you made this blanket cheaper for me I would buy it.

cipapa, n. used in the expression: Ki wa cipapa ... meaning a sudden death: Mwanana n-a ipapalela I hande. ha lu y'o kumbuluka ki wa cipapa. the child was playing by | ., himself but, before we knew | where we were he was dead.

-cipita (cipitile) v.t. shed tears softly: Mwanana yo u cipita ni? why does this child weep softly?

-cisa (cisize) v.t. sce: -ca caus.

ciso (li-) n. burning, act of consuming by fire: Ciso ya mishitu. annual l burning of undergrowth in forests. . Script. burnt offering. .

-coba1 (cobile) v.t. to shume: Ku coba makalata, to shume cards. I der. mucobi.

-coba2 (cobile) v.t. to pedal, to cycle. | der. mucobi. rel. -cobela (cobezi) to i cycle to.

-coba-coba (coba-cobile) v.t. (1) to, hop or dance out of joy. (2) to, smell out things here and there (dogs) syn. -caba-caba.

cobe! interj. expressing the disappearance of a person or an animal: Ha ni ka li cobe mwa ndu ya ka. . hakuna ya ka ni bona hape! after I have disappeared in my house no 4 one will see me again.

cob-cobe, adv. manner of people retiring to their quarters leaving a guest without proper accommoda tion. (Also applied to birds dispersing to their nests )

-cobela~~ (cobezi) v.t. to get into a house, a nest or a hole; to put on clothes or wrap oneself in a blanket. caus. -cobelisa (cobelisize) to assist a patient to dress; to tuck children into bed.

-cobela2 (cobezi) v.t. to squeeze someone under the arm in wrestling: U mu cobezi mwa kaiiolo, he squeezed him tightly under his arm syn. -nomela. fig

-cobila (cobilile) v.i. to chirp as birds in reed thickets or groves: to chatter noisely (as small children) freq. -cobilikana (cobilikanile) to chirp making a deafening noise.

-coceka (cocekile) v.t. to set fire to a grass huts a grass enclosure. or dry grass on the flats: Ka cocekile mulilo mwa libala ki mai1i? who has set fire to the grass in the plain?

-cocola (cocozi) v.t. to roast small fish in the fire (as children do). see: -shoshola (more frequent)

-cocoma (cocomile) vi. to be on the point of boiling, to simmer (as meat hissing gently) fig. to be pleasant to live in: Mwa ndu ya hae kwa cosoma, it it pleasant to live in his house; to be enjoyable: Mubinelo wa Rae wa cocoma, his manner of dancing is a pleasure to look at. cause. -cocomisa (cocomisize) to cause to simmer or roast: Ki mans ya covomisa nama fa liso? who is roasting meat on the hearth?

-cocomeka (cocomekile) or -cocomeza (cocomelize) v.t. to cause disorder by wilfully misplacing things. ref. -icocomeza (icocomelize) to introduce unexpectedly into a house. syn. -ipolyomeza.

-cocota (cocotile) v.i. to feel pain after burning or after an insect sting or bite; to feel a prickling pain (as when medicine is applied to a wound). syn. -shoshota.

-coka (cokile) v.t. to cut meat into strips. der. micoko. syn. -beka.

coko1 pi-) n. Eng. blackboard chalk. coko2 (li-) n. Eng. yoke. se: joko.

coko, ideoph. imitating the sound of a stamping pestle.

-cokoka1 (cokokile) v.i. to be husked: Mbonyi ya ka i cokokile hande, my mealies are well husked. fig. to be improving (as a person after a period of poverty or great difficulty).

-cokoka2 (cokokile) v.i. to be blistered (hands, feet), to be peeling off.

-cokola (cokozi) v.t. to husk grain. fig. (1) to improve someone's condition: Ki na ni til'o ka cokola, it is I who improved your living condition. (2) to spend a long time in jail: Ba il'o cokola mwa tolongo, they spent a long time in gaol. rel. cokolela (cokolezi) to husk grain for someone. caus. -cokolisa (cokolisize) to help to husk grain. ref. fig -icokola (icokozi) to devote much time to improving one's appearance by washing and dressing with care. rel. -lcokolela (icokolezi) to husk grain for oneself caus. -icokolisa (icokolisize) to help each other in husking grain.

-cokoma (cokomile) v.t. to spearg to stab: U mu cokomile ka gizmo la kobe, he killed him by stabbing him with a barbed spear. der. mucokomi. syn. -taba.

-cokomana (cokomani) v.i. to be sitting in great numbers (as people attending a Church Service, a meeting or a Court case.

-cokomeka (cokomekile) v.t. to gather people together for any public function.

-cola (colile) v.t. Luyana. to break. der. macolaula. syn. -loba. freq. -colaula (colauzi) to break into pieces.

-colaula (colauzi) v.t. to flatter, to praise unduly.

coliso (hi-) n. enthronement. from: yola.

-colomona (colomozi) or coomona (coomozi) v.i. to urinate copiously. syn. -lute, tapuluha.

-comeka (comekile) v.t. to drive in materials in order to fill in a gap; to drive a knife into a sheath; to insert, to thread a needle; to put a pin in the hair. syn. -comelela. fig. to puzzle or speak obscurely to someone. rel. -comekela (comekezi) to ~ for someone. freq. -comateka (comatekile) to drive in materials to fill up the gaps Mu comateke mataka mwa masuba kaufela a situwa, fill up every hole of the roof with reeds. inv. -comola (comozi): see. -comola.

-comelela (comelezi) v.t. to drive in materials, to stop gaps, in order to repair (roof, enclosure etc . . .) cf. -comeka.

-comoha (comohile) v.i. to slip out, to come out: Bwanda be comohile mwa ndonga, the thread slipped out of the needle.

-comola1 (comozi) v.t. to pull out; to unthread; to unsheath. rel. -comolela (comolezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -comolisa (comolisize) to help to ~.

-comola2 (comozi) v.i. to bring forth ears (maize) syn. -pakata.

compo, n. neckline of a blouse.

-compoloka (compolokile) to show (as a petty coat): Mu kutise hande pitikoti ya mina i compolokile kwa mulaho, please pull your petty coat, for it is showing behind.

-cona (conile) v.i. to wait for a long time, to stay away from home for a long time. der. siconi. syn. -liyongo bela. cf. -ondoka. rel. -conela is (conezi) to stay away for a long time, at or in a place: Ngete-ngete u il'o conela mwa Bulawayo, so-andso has been away in Bulawayo for a long time. caus. -conisa (conisize) to keep someone waiting for a long time; to cause someone to stay away for a long time. int. -conelela (conelezi) to stay away for I good. I

congo, n. noise, uproar: Mu na nilcondo hahulu, you are very noisy. lexcl: congo! stop making noise; si-llence !

-conka (conkile) v.t. to poke. syn. -cifia.

-conkola (conkozi) v.t. to woundlightly, to scratch: Kota i ni conkozikwa liutu, a stick has scratched my Ifoot. freq. -conkaula (conkauzi) fig lto irritate, to provoke someone's anger.

-conkomana (conkomani) v.i. to live in solitude. syn. -ungumana. rel. -lconkomanena (conkomanezi) v.i. to l live in solitude in or at a place. ref. , -iconkomanena, to live by oneself. l

-conkomona (conkomozi) v.t. to scrape with a pointed tool or stick l (as tobacco adhering to a snuff- ,box, etc . . .).

-coXa-coXa (coXa-conile) v.t. to poke in different places. syn. -cifia-cifia.

-cofiola (conozi) v.t. to wound lightly. syn. -coukola.

coo! ideoph. (ku li -) imitating the sound of a waterfall or that of very hot object when dipped in cold water. The expression: lizazi ha li

y'o hi coo, refers to the setting of the sun. (resembling the cooling of a red-hot object)

-cooma1 (comile) v.i. to make a crackling noise (as meat being fried in a pan); to emit a sound like

that of boiling water; to roar like a a waterfall: Mezi a cooma mwa roaring in the I sibuba, water is ^ rapids.

-cooma2 (coomile), v.t. Luyana. to hollow out, to scoop out (a mortar etc . . .)

-coomoka (coomokile) v.i. to flow, to run (liquid) car. -lota.

-copoka (copokile) v.i. to have the skin peeling off one's hands: Mute yo u copokile mwa mazoho. the skin of this man's hands is peeling off. caus. -copola (copozi) to cause the skin to peel off.

copoo! Expression referring to the skin when it peels off blistered hands: U. sebelize hahulu, mazoho a hae a li copoo! his hands are pecling for he worked very hard.

-copweta (copwetile) v.t. to stop leaks in a canoe or a barge. der. mucopweti, sicopwetiso, mucopwetelo. rel. -copwetela (copwetezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -copwdisa

f (copwetisize) to order or to help to sl ~. stat. copweteha (copweehile) that which can be stopped (leaks). cubela (cubezi) v.t. to squeeze, to lock the neck of one's opponent in wrestling, in the fold of the arm.

coca! or cucala! interj. expressing Isudden amazement, bewilder- Iment. syn. ciiisili!

cub (cucuzi) v.i. to be held as tightly as one in a snare. fig. to struggle in order to frce oneself: UJ sa cucula ni mutate wa Rae, he is still struggling to pay off his fine. caus. -cuculis (cuculisize) to hold tightly in wrestling.

cucu-cuku! Guess! (special expresst ion used in the Mayumbo game).I ! culi! ideoph. (kuli -) used in refer l ence to water falling in drops or to + anything falling in water or diving: a Ni bong kwena ha i Hi culi mwa mezi, 58 I have seen a crocodile dive into the water.

culu! interj. expressing surprise at I the disappearance of someone or at his absence for a long time: a li ku li culu kwa bukuwa h'a kuti! ever since he went to the line of rail, there has been no sign of him!

-culuka (culukile) v.i. to be absent for a long time.

-cululuka (cululukile) v.i. to be drip- ping with sweat or blood.

-cumula (cumuzi) v.i. to walk knee- deep in flood water.

-cunka (cunkile) v.t. to pour a drop or small quantity of liquid: Mu ni cunke mulyani mwa meto. pour some eyedrops into my eyes. der. sicunkiso. rel. -cunkela (cunkezi) to pour a drop for: A mu ni cunkele mwanana yo tubisi mwa komoki, please pour some milk in a cup for this child.

-cunuta (cufiutile) v.i. (1) to limp, to be lame. fig. to hesitate between two opinions. (2) to refuse one's husband. syn. -toza, -panata.

-cupuka (cupukile) or -cupula (cupuzi) v.i. to get out of, or set oneself frce from, a snare: Nyuny- vvani i cupuzi mwa katwa. the bird got out of the snare.

cupola (cupuzi) v.t. to unfasten, to untie, to unbind, to unlash: Ki mani ya cupuzi namani muhala? who has unloosened the calrs rope?

-cupwa (cupwile) or cupweka (cup- wekile) v.t. to dip the tip of one's finger in a liquid; to soak or im- merse completely: Uy'o cupwa lia- palo 7a hao mwa mezi, go and soak your clothes in water.

cupwi! ideoph. (ku li -) refers to walking in shallow water or to any object falling in water. cupya, adj. hornless (with reference to female cattle: cupyana)

cuu! ideoph. (ku li -) imitating the sound of a heavy rain.

-cuuka (cuukile) v.i. to know one's work thoroughly.

-cuula (cuuzi) v.t. to look attentively, to observe closely, to look thoroughly at: Mu ni coupe hande kamuso mu sike mwa ni timelelwa, take a good look at me, so that you do not fail to recognise me tomorrow.

-cuuma (cuumile) v.i. (1) to sound like heavy rain: (2) to be wailing (of many people mourning together) cf. -tuuma.

-cuumuka (cuumukile) v.i. to rain heavily.

cwaa! ideoph. (ku li -) refers to the sting or to the prick of a needle: also to the fact of getting out of sight: Nja pa ka ya sa li ka li cwaa ni folofolo mwa bucwani ha i sika kuta, since my dog disappeared while chasing game in the grass, it has not returned

cwale, adv. now, at the moment: in a narrative has the meaning of then'.

cwale-cwale, adv. just now, this g moment

cwale fa adv. at once immediately. X

cwaleka prep. as, such as: like.

cwalekaha, conj. as if, as when

cwalot adv. so, thus, in that way: Ee, ka cwalo, yes it is so hakucwalo, it is not so: mu eze cwalo, do it that way: kamukwaocwalo, so, conse quently: hakulicwalo, so, this being so: nihakulicwalo, even so, nevertheless. 'cwalo' may also be translated: that much, as much, so much, so many: Mu nife cwalo, give me as much: bats ba baSiata swab, so many people. adj. ya cwalo, mute ya cwalo, such a man: nto ye cwalo, such a thing.

cwalo-cwalo, adv. and so on, etcetera.

cwana, adv. so, thus, that way (preceeding an explanation or a demonstration)

-cwankama (cwankami) v.i. to disappear or be out of sight (as one gomg into the forest or being a long time at work or on some errands). syn. -icwanka.

-cwankeka (cwankekile) v.t. to hide, to keep in safety: U cwankekile tipa ya hae mwa bucwani, he hid his knife in the grass. ref.-icwankeka (icwankekile) to hide oneself. syn. icwanka.

cwanonu, adv. now (as cwale, but more emphatic)

cwani? adv. how? in which way? by what means?

-cwepula (cwepuzi) v.t. to beat slightly with a rod. freq.-cwepaula (cwepauzi) to beat repeatedly. ret cwepaulela (cwepaulezi) to beat on someone's behalf.

-cwiana (ewianile) v.i. to squeak like chicks or mice. syn. ciana.

<div>D

d, pronounced as in English. By itself 'd' is only used with words of foreign origin. In proper silozi words 'd' never stands alone, but combines with 'n': Ndate, ndu, ndanda, etc...

daimani, n. Eng. diamond, anything precious

dali, n. Eng. darling: Dali wa ka, my darling. syn. mulatiwa, sheli.

damu (li-) n. Eng. dam, swimming pool .

-dansa (dansize) v.i. Eng. to dance. der.

dansi. dansi (li-) n. Eng. dance (from: dansa )

dekitiva (ile) v.t. Eng. to act as a detective. (see: tikitiba)

diabulosi, n. Gk. the devil. syn. satani.

-dipa (dipile) v.t. Eng. to dip cattle.

dokota (ma-) n. Eng. doctor, medical practitioner. syn.in aka.

donki (li- or ma-) n. Eng. donkey. syn. mbongolo.

<div>E

E, e, has two sounds. One is open and nearly approaches to 'e' in bed: eza, ekeza, eleza etc . . . The other is closed. It mostly occurs when 'e' is used at the end of words: Bibeleye kenile, tafuleyende. etc . . .

e, rel. pron. obj. of nouns which have the plural in ma(class: buma, li - ma, lu -ma), those which: Mali e ni hola, the money which I draw. cf. a (4)

e, interj. (1) I say, mind ! beware be careful ! E, bona mwanana yo u ka ca, mind, that child may get burnt ! (2) In calling someone 'e' is often added to the name: Muyunda, e, becomes Muyundee . .. (3) Sometimes used interrogatively: e? what do you say?

e, eni, adv. yes. Eni is more polite than e: thus, the correct answer when assenting is 'eni sha' or 'eni shangwe '.

e, e, interj. calling to silence. E, e! a mu teeleze se si taha ko! stop that noise and listen to what is being said !

-ebela (ebezi) v.t. Luyana. to admire. der. Iiebela. syn. -buha. pass. -ebelelwa (ebelezwi) to be pleased, delighted, interested in contented: Mubeleki wa ka u ebelezwi kakuli ni mu pilisa hande, my employee is pleased with his job because I treat him well.

ehe! interj. of joy (as in welcoming people home); of surprise (when picking up lost things); of approval.

-ekeza (ekelize) v.t. to add, to increase. der. muekezi, kekezo. stat. ekezeha (ekezehile) to be increasing, to grow in size, to become greater or worse: Butuku bwa hae bu ya bu ekezeha, his iliness is steadily getting worse. rel. -ekeleza (ekelelize) to give more to, to give an increment: Ba ni ekelelize kwacha kwa mali e ni hola. they have given me one kwacha increment on the salary I draw. pass ekelezwa (ekelelizwe) to be given more: Ni kupa ku ekelezwa kakuli mali a ka ki a manyEnyani hahulu, I ask to be given an increment as my salary is very small.

-elekela (elekezi) v.t. Luyana. to measure with the hand, to give a handful (of salt, sceds, etc . . .)

-eleketa (eleketile) v.i. Luyana. to be tasteless (as relish not well seasoned).

-elemba (elembile) v.i. to roam about secing friends (especially applied to an idie woman at sced time). der. mwelembo.

-eleta (eletite or eletile) v.i. Luyana. as -eleketa.

-eleza (elezize or elelize) v.t. to advise, to counsel, to warn, to put on guard: Ya ka mu eleza ki mani? who will advise him? der. muelezi~~ kelezo, kelezano, rec. -elezana (elezani or elezanile) to advise or consult each other. ref. -ikeleza (ikelezize) to think over, to ponder.

-eluba (elubile) v.i. Luyana. te be stupid. der. muelo.

-ema (emile) v.i. see: -yema.

-emba-emba1 (emba-embile) v.i. Luyana to fpndie a baby with a view to showing him off

-emba-emba2 or empa-empa (embaembile or empa-empile) v.t. to be undecided (especially whether to give food to someone or reserve it for a better purpose). caus. -embaembisa or empa-empisize) to cause to retain or hold back (especially foodstuffs)

-embama (embami or embamile) v.t. (1) to lean forward in order to hear a conversation. to eavesdrop. (2) to sit close to someone (as a child to his parent). (3) to run side by side (as a dog chasing game). der. muembami, muembatami, liembatama. syn. -lkembeka. fig. to persist in begging or requesting: Nimufile kakuli n'a ni embami maswe, I granted his request because of his . persistence.

embeka (embekile) v.t. see: -keng eka.

-embela (embezi) v.t. Luyana. to . herd cattle. syn. -lisa..

-enda (endile) v.i. Luyana. to walk,to go, to travel. der. sendaendi, S luendo, syn. -zamaya. red. -enda-enda (enda-endile) to walk about, to stroll; to take a journey. l

-endelela (endelezi) v.i. to go from N bad to worse: U luke siapalo sa hao si ka endelela, mend your garment .before it gets completely ruined.fig. to go to the dogs.

-endeleza (endelelize) v.t. to lead astray, to entice, to seduce: Usike X .wa endeleza pilu ya hao cwalo, do .not be led astray in that way. ref. -ikendeleza (ikendelelize) to belittle .Oneself.

-endeka (endekile) v.t. to lean against. fig. to put up visitors. (see: -yendeka )

-enduka (endukile) v.i. to go downstream. der. muenduko. syn. -yen-duka.

-endamena (endamezi) v.t. to lean upon. der. maendameno. syn. -yen-damena.

-enga-enga ( enga-engile ) v. i. to start falling (as the first drops of rain); to have tears in one's eyes, to be ready to shed tears. cf: -cipita.

-engama (engami) v.i. to sit or stand close to a person: Mwanana kaufela u Iata hahulu ku engama ku bo mahe, every child likes to sit close to his mother. fig. to slander, to have continually someone's name on the lips.

-engaeta (engaetite) v.t. to display things meant to be carried unobserved . enge (li-) n. ink

-engela (engezi) v.i. (1) to be bulging (as a stomach), to be swollen (as a ripe abcess) (9) to be bright red and ripe (of fruit).

-engula (enguzi) v.i. to sit sideways on one thigh.

-enya (enyize) v.i. to be tepid, luke-warm: Ni tokwa mezi a enva han,vi-nyani, I want some lukewarm water. der. muenyena. red. -enya-enya (enya-enyize) to be nearly lukewarm.

-enyauka (enyaukile) or enyoka (enyokile) v.i. to be smouidering (as the remains of a fire) fig. to lose one's temper, to fly into a rage. rel. -enyokela (enyokezi) to be angry with someone. caus. -enyokisa (enyokisize) to irritate, to put into a rage.

-esha (eshile or eshize) v.i. Luyana. to arrive, to reach, to pass syn. -fita.

eshe! interj. not so. cf. asha! ishi!

-eshula (eshuzi) v.t. to overcome, to win, to come first (as in a race, at work or in an examination): Mu-kumbuta ki vena ya lu eshula mwa sitopa sa luna. in our class M ukum-buta is the one who always comes first syn. -teula, fita.

-eta (etile) v.i. Luyana. to visit. der. mueti, lieto. rel. -etela (etezi) to pay a visit to at (of persons or places) Ni til'o mi etela kacenu, today I have come to see you

-etelela (etelezi ) v.t. to walk in front, to lead people. der. mueteleli

eto! or eyo! interj. Luyana of ap-proval: welidone!

Evangeli or Evaneli, n. Eng. Gospel: Evangeli ya Mateu, the Gospel ac-cording to St. Matthew; the teach-ing of Jesus Christ: Evangeli i tisize liseli la kozo mwa Bulozi, the teach ing of Jesus Christ has brought the knowledge of peace in Bulozi

-eya (eyile) v.i. to be blown up (as fire by wind), to be red hot (of embers). fig. to be fiery, to hate, to be inflamed with anger or jeal-ousy der. Iieya. syn. -wekuma, -yekuma. rel. fig-eyela (eyezi) to be angry with someone. freq. -evoka or eyauka (eyokile or eyaukil) to be kept burning.

-eyala (eyalile) v.i. Luyana, to sit si-lently, to be overwhelmed with sorrow or misfortune: Mutu yo kEiii s'a eyalile cwana? why is this person so silent'? caus. -eyalisa (eyalisize) to cause someone to be silent or sorrowful

-eza (ezize) v.t. (1) to bring into existence, to make, to do, to act: Mu ezani? what are you doing? Ku eza hande, to do well; ku eza ka tata, to strive! to struggle. (2) to treat: Ku eza mutu hande, to treat someone well: ku eza mutu bu-tanga, to treat someone as a slave. der. muezi, muikezezi, kezo, keza-halo, buikeziso. syn. -tenda. rel. -ezeza (ezelize) to ~ for someone. caus. -ezisa (ezisize) to order or to help to ~: Se si ni ezisize cwalo ki ku sa ziba, it is ignorance that made me act like this. int. -ezeleza (ezelelize) to act completely int-stat. -ezahala (ezahalile) to be feas-ible, practicable, permissible, possible, realizable: Taba ye i eza-halile lili? when did this happen? rec. -ezana (ezani or ezanile) to do something to each other, to act mutually: ku ezana maswe, to wrong each other. req. -ezanga to have the habit of doing something. inv. -ezulula (ezuluzi) to do for the second time red. -eza-eza (eza-ezize) to do a little, to do what one can: ku eza-eza fela, to do half- heartedly. ref. -Ikeza (ikezize) to pretend to be, to simulate: ku ikeza bupulumuki, to simulate insanitv fig. exp. ku ikeza lisino, to refuse to be sent somewhere rel. -ikezeza (ikezelize) to make for oneself; to act on one's own initiative, to do as one pleases: Mutanga h a lukeli ku ikeze.a. a slave has no right to act on his own initiative. caus-ike- 1l zisa (ikezisize) to pretendz to pur- t posely make a mistake! to do convtrary to what is expected

<div>F

F. f, pronounced as in English

fa, adv. here: Zwafa, get outb go away ! kafa ni kafa, here and there. : Also means just now, as in the ex-pression: cwale-ceulefa, just now, immediately; or when: Fa n'afitezi n 'a otile hahulu, when he arrived he looked very thin.

fa, prep. at, on, applied to a place near at hand or time: Bafitilefa li-kamba, they have arrived at the shore; fa tafule, on the table; fa nakoya tei1i, at the appointed time. fa also means, sometimes from or to: Ni zwa fa likamba, ni ya fa sikolo, I come from the shore and ,go to the school Fa is also used in compound adverbs as fahalimu. -on. above: in addition to:fafasi, on "the ground: fatuko, aside: fahali, Cinside, within, through: fakaufi. near

fa (file) v.i. Luyana. to die. No longer used except as an interj. fa! truly ' der. mufu. svn. -shwa, timela.

-fa (file) v.t. to give, to supply, to bestow: A tt1U nife kwateni kwacha, S please give me a kwacha der. mpo. muipi, muipo. cf. -sunya. ref. -lpa (ipile) (1) to appropriate without permission: Ku maswe ku ipanga lika za mutu, it is not right to take someone's property without asking (2) to pretend, to give one-self airs. sp. exp. ku ipa mata, tq take pains: ku ipa linako. to fiX time by mutual consent; ku ipa lu .shango, to exchange news

fafasi, adv. on the ground: Tom4 munsifafasi, put the pestle on the ground.

-fafata (fafatile) v.t. to travel a lot; to go about seeing friends, to visit frequently: Mwanana yo u fafata hahulu, u ka shwa itekelelwa; this child goes visiting too often, he will die in an unknown way.

-fafaza1 (fafalize) v.t. to sprinkle: Pula ifafalizefela, the rain hardly fell.

-fafaza2 (fafalize) v.t. to scar babies affected by conjunctivitis. rel. -fa-faleza (fafalelize) to scar on behalf of someone. caus. -fafazisa (fafazi-size) to cause or to help to scar int. -fafaleleza (fafalelelize) to scar both temples.

-fafuha (fafuhile) v.i. to have a stab-bing pain in the chest cf. -fasuka.

-fafula (fafuzi) v.t. to cause pain: I UkilpO tU mu fatuzi. he l'eels a stab between the ribs (lit. the small ribs cause him an acute pain). cf. kabaei.

-faha (fahile) v.t. to pour meal into boiling water (when preparing porridge or 'buhobeO) rel. -fahela (fahezi) to ~ for someone. Int. -fa-helela (fahelezi) to pour all the meal into boiling water.

fahali, adv. inside, within, through.

fahalimu, adv. on. above. in addi-tion to

-fahula (fahuzi) v.t. to castrate: Poho l a ka ni ka i laXula maliha I shall castrate my bull this winter. der. mufahuli, mufahulelo, svn. -tumbula. rel. -fahulela (fahulezi) to ~ on behalf of someone. eaus. -fa-hulisa (fahulisize) to order or to help someone to ~.

fakaufi, adv. near.

-fala (falile) v.t. (1) to scrape skins in order to soften them (Usualiv done with a small adze blade or potshed) (2) to scrape the crusts in a cooking pot: Mu mu tuXele afale mahoho m ra piza i kene. Iet him scrape the crusts in the cooking pot to clean it. der. palo, sifaliso. fig. to turn down a request. syn. -noma,n ota. rel. -falela (falezi) to ~ for someone. eaus. -falisa (falisize) to order or to help someone to ~. stat. -faleha (falehile) to be well scraped. fig. exp: kacenu kufalehile k suhalinill, today the sky is cloud-less. ref. -lfalela (ifalezi) to scrape a hide l'or oneself.

-falala (falazi or falalile) v.i. (i) to be defeated, reduced to servitude: Mako/olo hafalalile n1stu Bu/o-i ka ivi/im0.va 1864, the Makololo were defcated in Buhrzi h1 1864: (2) to die away, (o hecome extinct: I u.vika lua he.su h/ falalile mssa Bulazi. my family have become extinct in Bulozi: (3) to be de-stroyed or left destitute through theft, fire or other calamity. der. palali. rel. -falalela (falalezi) to die at ~ or in (a place) eaus. -falalisa (falalisize) to defeat. to reduce to servitude.

-falaza (falazize) v.t. to defeat, to kill: to rob..eaus. -falazisa (falazi-size) to cause someone to sustain a loss by theft or death.

fale, faale adv. yonder, some place far away.

-falula1 (faluzi) v.t. to travel extensi-vely: U taluvi manaha, he has travelled in many countries.

-falula2 (faluzi) v.t. to scratch: Mika-kani i ni faluzi kwa lizoho the thorns have scratched my arm: Ka-e ifaluzi m vanana the cat has scratched the child. eaus. -falulisa (falulisize) to cause to scratch. freq. -falaula (falauzi) to scratch again and again. ref. -lfalulisa (ifa-lulisize) to cause oneself to be scratched.

-falula3 (faluzi) v.t. to sum up, to review the main points of a case. to cut short a long story.

-fana (fanile). v.t. to give much, to be generous. der. mufani, bufani. pano. Mufana-limpl), (~od (lit. the giver of gifts) rel. -fanela (fanezi) to give on behalf of someone: U.vike tw ni /anela lico za ka c valo u ka li feza do not distribute mv food thoughtlessly. otherwise it will be finished in no time. caus. -fanisa (fanisize) to give away. to distrih-ute generousl~.. rec. -fanana (fanani or fananile) to excharage gifts.

-fanda-fanda (fanda-fandile) .i. to stumble. to fall forward with outs-tretched arms.

-fandaula (fandauxi) >.t. to scatter things about carelessly. rel. -fan-daulela (fandaulezi) to scatter someone's things about carelessly. caus. -fandaulisa (fandaulisize) to cause to ~.

fande, adv. outside, out of doors: Mu zwelefande please go outside.

-fandisa (fandisize) v.t. to give. der. mafandisa. syn. -fafani, adv. there, over there

-fanuna (fanuzi) v.t. to scratch. der. mufanunuti. syn. -falula. freq. -fa-nauna (fanauzi) to scratch repeat-edln.

-fanata (fanatile) v.t. to grip some-one with both hands through anger or fear. syn. -fwaiiata.

-fapa (fapile) or fapula (fapuzi) v.t. to beat someone with a stick. to stab with a spear: U mu ja/)uzi ka ilUMlO, he stabbed him with a spear. freq. -fapaka (fapakile) or fapaula (fapauzi) to beat repeatedly.

-fapana (fapani or fapanile) v.i. to differ, to disagree. der. sifapano, fapano or papano. rel. -fapanela (fapanezi) to disagrce about some-thing. caus. -fapanya (fapanyize) or fapanyisa (fapanyisize) to cause disagrcement or misunderstanding between people: to differentiate between two things. int. -fapane-lela (fapanelezi) to disagrce completely.

fapano (li-) n. difference: misunderstanding. disagreement, disaccord. disunion, opposition. clash. (from:-fapana)

-fapuha (fapuhile) v.i. Sotho. to ieave the road. to move out of the way, to iet someone pass. syn. -keluha, -yabuka. fig. to go to the toilet (when travelling in a countryside): to be at one's period (women).

-fasa if asize) v.i. to be full (as river or a cooking pot): Pi ana i fa.vize the pot is brimful.

-fasa2 (fasize) v.i. Afrik. to become jamnacd (as a saw in timber): to be stuck (as a vehicle in sand): to be bloc ked.

-fasuka (fasukile) v.i. to become loose (as snares after much use) fig. to become angry.

-fasula (fasuzi) v.t. (1) to loosen a trap: Ki maiii safa.suzi kalv a ka ka" who has loosened the snare I had set'? (2) To brush off (as an insect on the body). fig. to irritate.

-fata1 (fatile) v.t. to scratch the ground with claws (fowls): to look for a iost thing mostly in sand. freq. -fataka (fatakile) to scratch continuously. rel. -fatakela (fata-kezi) to scratch someone's seeds: Likuhu li ni fatakezi mbonyi sa ka. the l'owls have dug up my mealie seeds.

-fata2 (fatile) v.t. to dazzle, to blind. to enter the eye (dust etc ...): Maluli a ni fatile dust has blinded me. stat. -fateha (fatehile) to becomc dazzled or blinded. fig. to be sightless (as someone under the influence of drink) ref. -lfata (ifa-tile) to cause one-s eyes to become sore, to rub one's eyes. fateni adv. on, there on. fatuko, adv. aside.

-fatungula (fatunguzi) v.t. to rummagc. to turn things over in search.

-fatuka (fatukile) v.t. to look for a missing article. to search. (see: -fetuka)

-fava (faile) v.t. to tread under the feet, to trample (of grass). der. si-fayamayungu, mufayaeli, mafaya. svn. -hwava. rel. -favela (fayezi) to feei one's way with the feet (as in marshy places) freq -fayaela (fayaezi) to walk across iong grass.

-fayuka (fayukile) v.i. to be very tired. to be exhaustcd. syn. - katala -bomba.

-fayula (fayuzi) .t. to be ilble to do something: to overcome. to mastcr. to oscrpovtPer: Mu.vehezi 1/ na li onu/rl/na, kono n i u tarl/ i - th e work vvas very hcavy but I was able to do it: Mu.sebezi u no li onil/-tl/nag nli u ni /alw i. the work aS ver! heavx and it exhausted me: Mutl/li w luna h'a koni ku fal~uS hande liva, our patient is unabic to takc food as he should.

-feba (febile) .i. Lyana. to smoke. to snuff. der. mufebi sifebi syn. -zuba.

-feela conj. oniv .N'i na ni bana ha beheli fee/a, I havc onlx t~so chil-dren. 5p. exp. Ku hana teela, to refusc ithout rcason: kl/ .sebe:a fee/a to work without pa!: ku ta feela, to give freels. ctc.

-fefuka (fefukile) v.i. to be hlown an a) . fig. exp. .Ve ni ve ni feti/kile ni kalok(7, I had alreatdy fallen aslcep.

-fefula (fefuxi) v.t. to winnow to fain. rel. -fefulela (fefulezi) to for someonc. caus. -fefulisa (fefulisize) to ordcr or to help someone to. ins . -fefulula (fefuluzi ) to w innovt a second timc.

-feka (fekile) v.i. I.uvana. to be sim-ilar to ha\e a resemhhlnce to. to take aftcr (as a child after his pimcnts ctc. der. sifekiso. syn. -hoza.

-fela (felile) .i. to comc to an end. to hecomc finished to run out: to expire to die: Mu.sehe i u telile, the work is finished: ku felile, it is fin-ished. it is the end. it is death. sp. eYp~ Ku fela pih/. to lose one's ternpcr: hurfla ha hu .va teli. eternal life. der. peto bufelo lifela. kau-fela. rel. -felela (felezi) to end at in or on (a place) I.i(o -a h/na lifeie-i n/nu n-ila, our food has finished on the N ay. pass -feles~a (felezvai) to become short of .Vi tele \ri ki nia/i I am short of money: ku te-lelew ki olata, to be at the end of one's strength: to be deprived of: Nifele ssi ki hana. I am left without children. caus. -felisa (felisize) or-feza (felize) to put an end to. (sec. -feza 7

felwani (li-) n. comma (.) syn. koma.

fene! interj. of denial (mostly used by children): Vi niu ku,nile kona ki fene. hakuna v'a ni file, I did ask him but he did not give me anything

-fenuna (fenuzi) v.t. to strip leaves from a mili7e cob.

-fenya (fenyize) v.t. Sotho. (1) to overcome to conquer. to subdue: luho.vi h'a fenli-e lila a hae a kutela nina Lealui, having conquered his enemies Lubosi re-turned to Lealui. (?) to wrr!' to trouble: Toho i nifenia hahulu, hea-daches car me out. der. mufenli. sifenyi lufenvo. mafenveho stat -fenyeha (fenyehile) to be ovcr-cornc. to be oppressed or pes-tered. svn -swenveha.

-fepa (fepile) v.t. Sotho. to feed: to keep someonc: .Vi viho/e .va naeto, H1i hAkuna nil/tl/ ra ni ferea han(te, I am hlBld and there is not ansone to feed me properly. cf. -uta.

-feta (fetile) .t. to stir. to churn (a churning stick etc. . . ): ku teta niahisi, to churn milk: ku teta nil/lilo to make fire bs friction. der. Iufeto sifetiso sifetelo. fig. to fcster (ahscess. hoii): ku teta hulalu, to throh.

-fetuha (fetuhile) v.i. to change. to turn. to be turned into. to be al-tered: Mutl~ wani na tana kono kavenl( .va fetullile niutimani l a-n/a.sne that generous person has charlged and is ~er!^ close-fisted today. .V(/ha kavenl/ ifetuhile, toda! thc countr! has changed. der. petuho petuhelo. rel. -fetuhela (fe-tuhezi) to turn to. in the direction of: to turn agair1st to rcsolt. caus. -fetuhisa (fetuhisize) to cause to change. to ordcr or to help to ~. int. -fetuhelela (fetuhelezi) to change completel} (mostly for thc worst): red. -fetuha-fetuha (fetuha-fetuhile) to turn over and over (as a patient in his bed): to chanye one's mind to alter one-s sasing: Munna la u fetl/ha-letuha feela. this man is alwa!s changing his mhad. ref. ifetuhela (ifetuhezi) or ipetuhela (ipetuhezi) to turn against. to rebel: to become enemies. rec. -fe-tuhelana i fetuhelani ) to turn against to rebel. to become enc-mies. (as ref)

-fetuka (fetukile) .t. to search care-fully for SOlilC mislaid article.

-fetula (fetuzi) v.t. (1) to alter: Ba Jetu i nlilao, thcy have amended the laws. (') to answer: Wena kiEli ha u paleBta ku ni fetula ha ni ku bu.a7 whv can't sou answer me when 1 ask you questions'? (3) to translate, to interpret: Baluti ba fetu.i Bibele ka Sila-i the Mission-aries have transl;lted thc Bible bIto Lozi. (4) to turn ovcr: ku fetu/a nania fa ml/lilo to turn roasting meat: ku fetula niukl/li ta nil/niheta to turn a patient over in his hed der. mufetuli. petulo. sifetuliso. rel. -fetulela (fetulezi) to translate into. to interpret for someone. caus. -fe-tulisa (fetulisize) to ordcr or to hcip to ~. rec. -fetulana (fetulani) to ans~ser cach other ~ith anger. freq. -fetaula (fetauzi) to chanue. to turn again and again. (fig) to treat someonc rcuardless of' his wish: t sike n(l ni t(tal/la e stalo ha ni nil/tm/ga 1s o llao. do not treat me just as nou like. for I artI not your slave. ref. -lfetula (ifetuzi) or -ipe-tu/a /spetu:iv to change. to turn oncself into: nil/.shiniani l a u ipetl/.i sihssaha this boy has turned into a truallt.

-feuka (feukile) v.i. to hurry up. to make haste (vthen walking, travel-iinu) cf. -akufa.

-feza (felize) v.t. to finish (f'ood. ork etc . . .). Iu feli.e nil/vehe i vvc havc completed the job: kuJe:a taba to conclude. fig. exp. Bulevi hu le:a hatu withcraft finishes people. der. mufezi, mufelelezi, ma-felelezo. rel. -feleza If eleli:e 2 to fhaish or appropriate someone-s food or property etc . . .: Ba nifele-li e likonil/ ca ka nl^saml/laho a litiw /a n(/ate thes appropriated ms cattle after mn father's death. caus. -fezisa (fezisize) to cause to ~. int. -fezeleza (fezelelize) or-fe-leleza (felelelize) to finish, to givc the last touch. to perfect. ku fele-leza is also used as an adv. mcan-ing: completelv. absolutel!: ku lata nil/tl/ ku felele a to love someone unrescrnedly. rec. -fezana (fezani or fezanile) to do av a) with each other. ref. -lpeza (ipelize) as rec.

fibele, n. Eng. fever (especialiv ma-laria), a cold in the head.

-fiyela (fiezi) v.t. to sn eep. to clear out: Ve ka ha nil/kea anilinde ku firela haloi nl\sw naha it ssould he a good thing to clear the land of sithcraft der. mufiveliq lufivelo. si-fiveliso, mufivelelm fig. to surpass: .\ina sil(/lia .S'ililo u /ire i ha hanswi kautela, in thc race Sililo sur-passcd all thc others. rel. -fivelela (fiyelezi) to ~ for somcone caus. -fivelisa (fivelisize) to order or to help to _ . ref. -lfivelela (ifiyelezi) or -ipielela ( ipielezi ) to do one's oxvrl sxseeping.

fiyelo, n. semicolon (:).

-fifala (fifezi orfifalile) v.i. Sotho. to become dark. der. sififi, kafifi, lififi. svn. -unsufala.

fifi, n. fist: ku nata ka ffi. to strikc with the fist.

-filiheza (filihelize) v.t. Sotho. to ac-company. syn. -sindeketa.

-filika (filikile) v.i. to go to and fro. to move about (especiaily of a large number of people).

-filikana (filikani) v.i. to become upset. troubled, agitated (often through anger)

-filikanya (filikanvize) v.t. to upset people. to cause trouble or dis-cord: lu.veho lufilikanxa batu, slan-dering causes discord among peopie. der. mufilikanyi. syn. -kataza, -shupa. undunganya.

-finana (finani) or -fwinana (fwina-nine) v.i. to look with half closed eves. to have an ugiv looking face. -fipela (fipezi) or -fipelwa (fipezwi) v.i. to be out of breath. constipate. to be suffocating. caus. -fipelisa (fi-pelisize) or -fipeza. (fipelize) to put out of breath, to suffocate, to stifle. fig. to embarrass: Lipuzo za bona za fpeAva. their questions are embarrassing. ref. -lpipeza (ipipe-lize) fig to hide the truth.

-fita1 (fitile) v.t. to surpass. to exceed, to outdo: Pita ra nifita kew hutelele, Pcter is taller than 1. The infinitive is commonly used to express comparison of' adjcctives and adverbs: V(/u l e ki l ende ku fita lani, this house is better than that: ni lata Nlanibe ku tita Nasilele, I prefcr Nvalilbc to Nasilele. The superlative degrce is expressed b! the adverbial phrase 'ka kutitisi.va '. Musali l o ki l oml/nde ka ku fitivi.va. this woman is thc prettiest of all. rec. -fitana (fitani) to hc unequal in size or wealth. Ku .vafitana, to be equal.

-fita2 (fitile) v.i. to arrive, to reach, to pass: Mu fitile lili? when did you arrive" Kutitafa . . . to reach a cer-tain level or height. der. mufiti. mafitelo. svn. -esha. rel. -fitela (fitezi) (1) to stop at, to be put up at: Baenl i ha fitezi kai'2 with whom are the visitors stopping? (2) to be on the way to: Nifitela kwa Mongu, I am on my way to Mongu. sp. exp. ku fitela kneapili, to go ahead. to go in front of others. kufitela, until: ku fitela cuwle, until now. pass -fi-telwa (fitezwi) to be surprised by. to be in receipt of: Ni Jite. t7 ki haenli, I have been surprised bv visitors, caus. -fitisa (fitisize) to cause to arrive, to convey, to de-liver: Mu l 'o Jiti.va linolo le k} w heni ha lona, pleasc deliver this letter to the addressee. rel. -fitiseza (fitise-lize) to convev or deliver on behalf of: Mu ni Jiti.veze masewbi, a ka kova balili, please convey my sympathx to the mourners. int. -fitelela (fite-lezi) to pass through without stop-ping, to go further. fig to be stil-iborn: MHana u fitelezi, the babv was still-born. rec. -fitana (fitani) to differ. to contrast, to clash: Mihala l e la fitana, these colours clash. ref. -lpitela (ipitezi) to pass on.

-fitahanya (fitahanvize) or -fitaha-nyisa (fitahanvisize) v.t. to wear skirts of uncqual length. to ma-chine irreguhirly in stitching. to make irregular points when sewi ng.

fo, adv. there: I heefo. put it there: where: Ha ni ibi lo i heil~re tipa, I do n0t kno~~ where the knife has heen put. sp. exp. fo. ha ni zihi. on this matter. I have no knowicd,sze'

-focola (focozi) .t. to shovel. der. mufocoli, focolo, mufocolelo.

focolo (li- or ma-) n. shovel, spade. (from: -focola)

fohe, conj. and then: U ni ut sve pili. fohe u ta ironela; hear me first. and then do what you like.

-fokola (fokozi) v.i. to become weak: Mukuli u fokozi hahulu, the patient is very weak. der. mufokoli. mufokolo, bufokoli. caus. -fokolisa (fokolisize) to weaken: Butuku hu mufokolisize hahulu, his illness has weakened him a lot.

-fokoza (fokolize) v.t. see: -fukuza.

fokunwi, adv. sometimes.

-fola (folile) v.i. (1) to become cold. to cool off, to cool down: Mu tuhele muzilili u Jole, leave the milk to cool: kufolile cssale, it is cool now ( especially applied to the late afternoon); med (2) to recover from an iliness. to get better: Li-tombo za ka li folile c tWle, the sores I had are all healed now. caus. -folisa (folisize) (1) to let anything cool down: Lu sa foli.va lizazi, we are just sitting in the shade till the sun cools down ... (expression used by traveliers) (2) to cure someone. to heal: Ni mu alatile. Muliml/ u mu foli.vize, I dressed him, God heaied him.

foli! adv. exp. indicating fear: N'a bata ku ni /uwni.va kono a sa hona fela muhulwan'a ka .ve li foli' He wanted to fight me but on seeing my elder hrother he lost his cour-age. (from: -fola)

folofolo (li-) n. animal. game (mostly applied to hoofed animals) fig. a person N ithout human quali-ties: Ha ki nil/tl/, ki Jblotolo. hc is not a human being. he is just an animal. svn. sivamana.

foloko (li-i n. F.ng. a aable fork. syn. tabisa .

-foloma (folomile) v.t. I:ng. (1) to make bricks (2) to supervise labour: Ki mani kapitao lta mi foloma fa.2 who is the foreman supervising you here? fig. to manage to give orders: Musali hta hxkeli ku foloma munna hae mwa lapa a wife ought not to boss her husband in their home. der. mufo-lomi sifolomiso folomani. rel. -fo-lomela (folomezi) to ~ for some-one. caus. -folomisa (folomisize) to order to help to ~. ref. -lfolomela (ifolomezi) to ~ for one's own use.

folomani (ma-) n. Eng. foreman supervisor. (from: -foloma)

-foloza (folozize) v.i. to miscarry to abort (applied only to animals) fig. to blossom without setting: Mahele a folozize, the kaffir corn has not set der. sifolozwani.

-foma (fomile) v.i. (1) to breathe with difficulty (as a person suffer-ing from a chronic chest disease). (2) to puff (as snakes of the adder type) (3) to puff (as a railway engine).

fomo! adv. exp. indicating exhaus-tion: Mutu zwni u kate. -i u ize Jomo, that man is not only tired he is ex-hausted '

-fomoka (fomokile) v.i. to be ex-hausted. to be tired out. caus. -fomona (fomozi) to tire to wear out. pass. -fomolwa (fomozwi): A'i fomozwi ki mu.vebezi wa ku fuluha, I am tired out by paddling.

fona adv. just. as in the cxpression: Jona fa just there just novt. (see: hona )

foni (li-) n. Eng. telephone: Kaml/.vo ni ta ku li e-a foni, I shall ring you up to-morrow.

-fonya-fonya (fonva-fonvize) v.t. to damage: io huild careiessly. syn. -fwanva-fwanva.

-fonyoka (fonvokile) v.i. to hecome hr~;ised damagcd. hurt: h/taka lo h~ fonrokile, a bruised reed.

-fonyona (fonyozi) v.t. (t) to bruise. to crumple. to hurt: Mu .vuw/e hande mPl/tl/tl/~ mu .sike mstw mu /o-niona, handle the baby with care lest you hurt him. (2) to pluck (as ripc bananas f'rom the bunch).

-fopa (fopile) v.i. to become less swollen. to go down, to become detlated: Sitomho .va hae .vi fopile. his abscess has gone down. fig. to cease raging, to cool down. caus. -fopisa (fopisize) to reduce a swell-ing. fig. to calm, to convince some-one.

fope! adv. exp. indicating deflation: Ne h/ laha kono ha lu l 'o kumbuluka mhola \a h/na ve lifope.' we were playing when we suddenly realized that our hall was becoming flat.

-fosa (fosize) v.i. to make mistakes. to do wrong, to be guilty: to sin: to commit adultery: U fo.vi e ku ,amara a .sina situpa, he made a mistake in going without his Iden-tit! Card: .Vgete u fosize ni musal'a ml/tl/* so and so committed adul-tery with someone's wife. der. sifosi, foso or poso, bufosi, mafo-sisa. rel. -foseza (foselize) to wrong someone, to offend: to sin against: Mu ni ,vasw/e/e ni mifo.velize. please forgive me for offending you. ku fove.a masife, to outrage. rec -fose-zana (fosezani) or (fosezanile) to wrong each other. caus. -fosisa (fo-sisize) to mislead. to cause wrong int-stat. -fosahala (fosahezi or fosa-halile) to hecome wrong, to be donc wrongly: k'u fovahalile, the mistakc has heen made.

foso or poso (li-) n. mistake. fault. sin (f'rom:-fosa)

-foufala (foufezi) v.i, to become hlhid. to lose one's sight. der. sihofu, hubefu. caus. -foufaza (fou-falize) to cause hlindness.

-fua-fua (fua-fuile) v.i. (i) to be given to dilatoriness: to be slow when starth1g a journey. der. Iifua-fua or lifuwa-fuwa. svn. Iiva-liva. (2) to walk heavily (as s~;meone wcaring many skirts)

-fuama (fuami or fuamile) v.i. (1) to come ashore (as a canoe), to land sat'ely: Mukolo a ka ufi/ami fa li-kamha la Mulumho, my canoc is ashore at Mulumbo landing place. (7) to become completed (as the hoehig of a garden): Wima la ka i fi/ami kacenu, today my garden was ploughed up to the far end. cf. -fweka.

-fuba (fubile) v.i. (t) to remain rax when cooked (as vegetable mar-ros s). (2) not to grow well (mostly applied to underfed children). (3) to deteriorate becausc of frost (fruit).

-fubela (fubezi) v.i. to become red (eyes. fruit, sunset etc ...) der. mafube, sifubelu, caus. -fubelisa (fubelisize) or -fubeza (fubelize) to cause to ~ Mbututu lo u nifubeli-,vize meto, kacem/ ha ni sika kona buloko, todav mv eyes havc become red because the baby would not let me sleep at all.

fubelu, adj. red: li.vila le lifutelu, red cloth: sometimes applied to dark yello~ and gold: Pondo le fi/heh/, gold coin. (see: mafube bufubelu)

-fufa1 (fufile) v.i. to fly. to travel hs air. der. mufufisi, sifufaeti, mufufi-sezo, mufufelo, mafufa. rel. -fufela (fufezi ) ( 1 ) to fls to: Bafi/fezi k; w Luvaka, the\ have flown to Lusaka: (2) to throv dust all over somcone: C' sike a nifulela nzall/li, do not throw dust ail ovcr me. caus. -fufisa (fufisize) to cause to fl~: to pilot an aircraft. red -fufisa-fufisa (fufisa-fufisize) to causc hirds to fl! here and there. to put flight (as when shooting birds) int. -fufelelela (fufelelezi) to fls awa~; (speaking ot'a croup of birds) red. -fufa-fufa ( fufa-fufile ) to tly every now and then, here and there. rel. -fufa-fufela (fufa-fufezi) to fty about. on or at (a place): Mai7uw-lala a fi/fa-fi/fela fa ndl/ la ka. the crows are fising round the roof of mv house.

-fufa2 (fufile) v.i. to grow thh1: Mua-nana vo u futile hahull/, this child is very thin. der. kafufeti. syn. -Ivanga.

-fufula~ (fufuzi) v.i. to boil over (as milk). to froth, to bubble up. fig. to be filled to capacity: k'eleke i te i mane ki l e futi/la ni fa ml/lom/u thc Church is full to the point of over-flowing into the porch.

-fufula2 (fufuzi) v.t. to blow dust awav. cf. -tutula.

-fufulelwa (fufulezwi) v.i. to be sweating. der. mufufuzo. mufufu-lelwa. syn. -tengela, -tukutelwa, sh-waluka. fig. to meddle. to hiterfcre unnecessarily: Wena u fufl/lelaw cuani mw w litaha e si a hao7 w hv do you interfere in matters which do not concern you?

-fufuluka (fufulukile) ^.i. to sn ell again (as an old sore). syn. -sheshu-luka.

-fufumuka (fufumukile) v.i. to sn etl (as fish going had). svn. -huhu-muha. fig. to flare up h; rage.

-fufuna (fufunile) v.t. to sniff around as dogs looking ttor remains of food.

-fufunya (fufunyize) ^.t. to eat (as a horse, a pig etc . . )

-fuka1 (fukile) .i. to blo~ (s ind): Mol a u fi/ka hahl/ll/ h(7 h/ na ku .vi/a kacenl/, the N ind is hlos ing too strongln, so N c shall not cross the river tod;txs fig to run headlong: Munna l a 11 a n1nta A-i ku fi/t/7 i11gf niora, vthen this man runs he goes like the wi11d. rel. -fukela (fukezi) to hlow to. h1 the direction of pass. -fukelwa (fukezwi) to be at ease. to be comfortable: k'l/ fi/-keBtw ki mora, to be refreshed hs a gentle X ind sp. exp. u fukelwe ki moya mas you enjov good health.

-fuka2 (fukile) v.i. to be moved from the shore: Mukolo u fukile. the CanOe WLIS blown ot't'-shore.

-fukeka (fukekile) .t. to cover with a plate (as a clay pot). to put a grass roof on a grain-bin. inv. -fukula (fukuzi) to uncover, to take off a lid. fig. exp. C' sike ta fi/kula fateisi. ki litaba a luna ba habeli fela. do not reveal anything. it is our secret.

-fukuka (fukukile) v.i. to blow (as a gale )

-fukula (fukuzi) v.t. to raise dust der. kafuko-fuko. fig. (t) to work vers hard (as women in their fields) (2) to dance vtith passion.

-fukuza (fukuzize or fukulize) v.t. (1) to reduce, to cut down (of expen-diture). to lighten a load: Lieo ki enl inuani, mu fi/kuze kova batull/hi. we are short of food. so reduce the number of paddlers. (2) to kili with a spear, to give the last stroke to a wounded animal. ef. -cokoma. stat. -fukuzeha (fukuzehile) to be de-creasing. to be reduced

-fula1 (fuzi) v.i. and v.t. to move a canoe from the shore: kl/ fi/la nil/kolog to set out. to sail.

-fula2 (fulile) v.i. to cease having menses, to be past child-bearing

-fula3 (fulile) s.t. to graze, to t'eed on grass. der. mafulo, mafulelo. bufulo. fig. exp. IYa h/ .va tokomeli. ha lu na kl/ hu fi/la ml/niasluahm it' we do not take carc, we shall not see the end ot' the ve.lr lit: v e shall nor graze) rel. -fulela ifulezi) to graze at or in (a place): Munda likomu li fulela mwa mishitu, during the fiood cattle graze in forest areas. caus. -fulisa (fulisize) to tend cattle while grazing. red. -fula-fula (fula-fulile) to graze here and there for a short while. ref. -lfulela (ifulezi) to graze without supervision.

fulaha (ma-) n. heap. pile, cord: f.;/laha l~a litapi. a heap of fish: fulaha la likota, a pile or cord ot' wood. svn. kuba.

fulai (li-j n. Eng. aircraft, (flying machine)

fulalela (fulalezi) v.t. to turn one's back on someone or something: I' sike wa fulalela ml/tu l'o bulela ni rena, do not turn your back on the person you are talking to. fig. to forsake, to abandon. pass -fula-lelwa (fulalezwi) to be abandoned.

-fulama (fulami or fulamile) v.i. (1) to bow down decply. to be hent: SiXwana sifulami, the caiabash is leaning to one side. (2) to cast spells early in the morning (bowing forward and naked ac-cording to N ithcraft beliefs). der. kafulambi, kafulandondo.

-fulana (fulani or fulanile) v.i. ( i ) to gasp for breath as someone on the point of death. (2) to blow in all di-rections (wind).

fulaulo, n. F.ng. flour.

-fuleka (fulekile) v.t. to incline a container in order to pour out the content.

fulemu (li-) n. Eng. frame.

-fuluha (fuluhile) v.t. to paddle. der. mufuluhi, sifuluhiso, mufuluhelo. rel. -fuluhela (fuluhezi) to paddle towards: U .sike waJI/ll/hela nekl/ lili-linwi. do not paddle on one sidc onls. caus. -fuluhisa (fuluhisize) to order or to help someonc to padd le.

-fuluhela (fuluhezi) >.i. to move back to the flats after the flood (as opposed to 'ku-omboka' ); to go down from the forest to the edge of the plain. caus. -fuluheza (fulu-helize) to cause or to help some-one to move back to the flats. fig. to wash down food with a drink of water.

-fulula (fuluzi) v.t. see: -fuulula.

-fululela (fululezi) v.t. to string or thread beads: Mu.vizana Iv ufulu-lela .vifah-a sesinde, this gir1 is making a nice necklace. ssn. -hukela.

-fulumana (fulumani or fulumanine) v.i. to menstruate for the first time, to attain puberty. (A girl in that condition is called 'mwa-lyanjo' and during her initiation is said to be: mwa 'sikenge').

-fulumeka (fulumekile) v.t. to turn upside down: ku fulumeka pi,a, to turn the pot upside down; to cover a vessel with a plate. inv. -fulumuna (fulumuzi or fulumunine) to un-cover a vessel.

fulumo (li-) n. Iining of a kilt or skirt, lining of any garment.

-fulumuka (fulumukile) v.i. to begin to sound (verb used for royal drums: for ordinary drums the verb used is: lila).

-fulumuna (fulumuzi) v.t. to start sounding the royal drums: Utua se hafulumuna maoma, listen they are starting to sound the roval drums.

-fulunyeka (fulunyekile) or-funyeka (funyekile) v.t. to give grudgingis as a close fisted person.

-fuma1 (fumile) v.t. to own, to pos-sess. Bv extension: to be well off. to be ~ealthy. der. mufumi, bufumu svn. -lua or -luwa. rel. -fumela (fumezi) to acquire wealth at (a place) or from (a person): Silih) u il'o fumela kea Bulawal op Sililo has acquircd his wcalth at Bulawayo caus. -fumisa (fumisize) to causc someone to acquire wealth: Mule-ki.vi l ani ki luna lu mt/funlisi-es that trader has acquired wealth through our dealing with him. pass -fumiswa (fumisizwe) to be en-riched by: Mutu a/) ufi/miviawe ki lftars this person was enriched by tradBlg fish.

-fuma2 (fumile) v.i. to become rusty. to become blunt: Tipa l~a ka i Jumile, mv knife is blunt. der. mafumi. caus. -fumisa (fumisize) to cause bluntness: A ni lati kuli u se-helive tira la ka, u ka ifumi.va, I do not want vou to use mv knife. for you will make it blunt.

-fumana (fumani or fumanile) v.t. (1) to find. to discovcr: Ni fi/mani ngu zea ka re ne latehile, I have found my sheep which was lost: Ni funiani haluti ha i/e. I found the teachers alreadv gone. (2) to re-ceive as payment: Mufumani bukai fa kon1l/ r e ne mu lekiva? how much did vou get for the cattle you were selling? (3) to give a decision after hearing (a casc etc . .): Mwa taha mo nifumana kuli vifovi ki mu.vali. i n this case I find that the offender is the N oman. rel. -fumanela (fuma-nezi) to find something for some-one: kana a n1l/ koni ku nili/nianela muveke:i ko niu heleka" can't vou fhad me work with your emploner'9 caus. -fumanisa (fumanisize) to cause or to help someone to find: to cause someonc to receine (a zift etc . .) stat. -fumaneha (fumane-hile) to be obtainable: to becomc perceptible, esident: Li.vila le lifi/-oraneha kai'<shere is this materkil obtainahie'? ref. -lpumana ( ipumani ) to find out ahout oneself: Ni ir)u-mana ml/latm I find myscif guilty. rel. -ipumanela (ipumanezi) to find for oneself, by one's own means

-fumba (fumbile) v.i. to plan. to think over, to consider: Mu.vali lto u fistha ku la haho unomvaha this woman pians to go home this year der. mufumbo. svn. -lumba. rel. -fumbela (fumbezi) to threaten, to menace: Na fumbela ku hulal a mutu, he was threatening to kill someone, rel. -fumbelela (fumbelezi) to threaten someone: Kiiri s'o nr fumhelela ewalo:' why do y ou thrcaten mc likc that" caus. -fum-bisa (fumbisize) or-fumbelisa (fum-belisize) to cause someone to be threatened: Kini .ve si ku fumhelisa ku hulala mutu lo? why are you threatening to kill this man? rec. -fumbelana (fumbelani) to threaten each other.

-fumbata (fumbatile) v.i. to sprout (kaffir corn ctc . . .) rel. -fumbatela fumbatezi) fig. to grasp in the hand: (' fumbate-iiri mwa licoho? what are vou grasping in vour hand'? inv. -fumbutula ( fumbutuzi ) to open one's hand or someone else's hand. int. -fumbutulula (fum-butuluzi) to open the hand com-pletelv. rel. -fumbutululela (fumbu-tululezi) to open the hand to. to give w illingly: Mu funihl/tl/lulele ha-hotana ma-oho a n7inafi open vour hands wide to the poor, give gene-rousiv poor

-fumbuka (fumbukile) v.i. to be hulging. swollen out (stomach. conical trap filil of fish. etc . . .)

-fumpa (fumpile) v.t. to put all the relish in the pot without keeping anv ior further use.

-fumpama (fumpami or fumpamile) v.i. to coll;lpse: Bunata h; w mandu a funl/~anli hakeirisa mola oml/tuna nrakani, manv houses collapsed vesterday hec;luse of the hurri-cane.

-fumpeka (fumpekile) v.t. (1) to catch birds under whino~sing bas-kets. (9) to make f'all. collapse.

-fumyana (fumvanile) v.i. to stink. to emit an offensive smell: Se.vifi/-nriana fa kiiri? what is stinkmg here ? eaus. -fumyanisa (fumyani-size) to cause an of'fensive smeil.

-funa (funile) v.t. to break into chips (cassava roots. etc . . .): mewnja ua ku funa. cassava chips. rel. -funela (funezi) to ~ for someone. eaus. -funisa (funisize) to help to ~. stat-funeha (funehile) to be poundable: Muanja wo ha u funehi kakuli ha u ~ika onra hande, this cassava cannot be easilx pounded because it is not quite dr!. syn. -sita stat.

-funda1 (fundile) v.t. to trace aline on the groulid with the foot. der. mu-funda.

-funda2 (fundile) v.t. to steal some-thing from a relative. (f'ormerls this was not held as an offence): l' fundile konru la malunrahe, he has stolen a cow from his maternal uncle. der. mufundi lifunda. rel. -fundela (fundezi) to steal on some-one-s behalf: Komu le ni i funde.i ku funranela nawanta ka mali a sikolo, I have stolen this cow in order to pav mv child's school fees.

-fundela (fundezi) v.t. to trace a line round a wild fruit tree to ensure the harvest for oneseif. to protect crops from thieves bx means of charms. to protect landing places from crocodiles. der. mufundeli si-funda. rel. -fundelela (fundelezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -fundelisa (fundelizise) to use charms in order to harm people through dif'-ferent means (lightning. snakes. crocodiles. etc . . .) inv. -fundulula (funduluzi) to remove the cursc from one ~s ho accideiltalls inter-fered v ith protected crops.

-fundota (fundotile) v.t. to hawk. to trade to peddle. to advertise svn. -bapaza. rel. -fundotela (fundotezi) to trade on someone's behalf.

-funduka (fundukile) v.i. to set out to go off. to leave: Mu ta funduka ka nako nrairi? what time will sou set off?

-fundula (funduzi) v.t. to see some-one off. to order or allos someone to leave to bid fareweil to some-one.

-funga (fungile) v.t. to tie up to bind to fasten: Ml/ X 'ofunga nrana-mani, go and tether the calves. der. mufungi mufungululi mufungulelo lifungelo lifunga. cf. -tama. rel. -fungela (fungezi) to tie for some-one or at (a place). eaus. -fungisa (fungisize) to order or to help someone to ~. int. -fungelela (fungelezi) to tie up all the cattic for the night. inv. -fungulula (fung-uluzi) to untie to unbind (cattle.) tva set free.

-fungula (funguzi) v.t (1) to send someone on a speckil errand or service. (2) to condemn someone to death. (3) to order the slaughter of cattie: Bo ndate ha fi/ngu.i kos~zu ~u hona kuli lu i hulaye, my f'ather has ordered us to slaughter his cow. der. mufunguli.

-funguluka (fungulukile) v.i. to fall (as the belly before the birth of a child)

-funjela (funjezi) v.i. to eat greCdil! and regardiess of others. der. ma-funjo nefunjo.

-funkunya (funkunyize) or -funva (funvize) v.t. to chex large mouth-f'ulls of sof't food (such as svseet-potatoes). der. mafunvangulu.

-funya (funyise) v.i. to loiter. to linger. to paddle lazily: Mu .vike nr^za fi/nia. a nru hone nu/kolo wa r enr(l do not paddle lazily. Look the canoe is slowing down. -funva-funya (funya-funvize) to linger about. to delay. eaus. -funva-funyisa (funya-funsisize) to cause someone to linger or delay.

-funya2 (funvize) v.t. to masticate.

-funya3 (funsize) v.i. to dance. freq. -funyaka (funyakile) or -funyakela (funyakezi) to perform anything with great exertion (~ with special reference to dancing).

-funyuka ifunyukile) v.i. to get bent. deformed (shoes): Silaho va ka si funl ukile Irahulu, my paddle has got badly bent. spec exp. Litalka la fi/-niuka kono ha li hvhehi, the reed bends. but does not break. der. sa-funyuka.

-funyuna (funvuzi) v.t. to bent. to deform to dam;lge. ef. -fonyona.

-funyungula (funyunguzi) or -ifu-nyungula (ifunyunguzi) v.i. to dance. svn: -bina, -funva

-fupa (fupile) v.t. to strike some-thing bv throwing a stick: to kill with one stroke (hirds. etc . . .) rel. -fupela ifupezi) to ~ f'or someone: U ni fi/Ssele nlunmvani lani, strike that hird for me. freq. -fupaka (fu-pakile) or -fupaula (fupauzi) or ~ repeatedls.

-futa~ (futife) v.i. to begin to deCa!

-futa2 (futile) v.t. (1) to blow: A mu t'o nifuta nrua lfito come and bloz in mv eve (to remove some foreign matter): ku fi/ta kandela, to hlo~ a candle out: (2) to blow through a hlocked pipe. rel. -futela i futezi ) to blovs on behalf of someone. eaus. -futisa (futisize) to help someone to hlow when unblocking pipes.

-futama ( futami or tutamile ) .i. (1) to be in proccss of ferment;ltion (as grain used in hren ing). (2) to ripcn (as unripe fruit kept under ground or in thick grass).

-futeka (futekile) a.t. to let ferment ing uraill mautre to put ullripc fruit undergroulid f'or it to ripen

-futuka (futukile) v.i. to be chaliging position to be chaligilig sides. to be turned backwards. to be upside down: Muanana vo u Jr/tr/kile ln nu/nrheta, this child is sleeping the vsrong \ a! round.

-futukela (futukezi) v.t. to turn ag ainst someolic. rec. -futukelana (futukelani) to turn against each other. ref. ifutukela (ifutukezi) as ree.

-futula (futuzi) v.t. to reverse the position of to change sides to turn backvsards or upside down. to turn round: A nu/ fi/ tule nuckolo, turn the canoe round. fig. (1) to go back on one's exidence (as in the expression: kututulanza.vina . Iit: to turn the roots up) to put the cart before the horse. (2) to cast a speil on someone to makc him senseless.

-futumala (futumezi) v.i. to get warm to be snarm: ISarenu kea fi/-tun1ala, it is warm toda!: nae i a fu-tuma/a, X arm water. der. mufutu-mazi mufutumala. rel. pass-futu-maleiwa (futumalezwi) to be com-fortably warm: BuvEhu ha ni vika futumaielwa likuh(y a ka .ve li.vu/~ezi, last night I was not warm enough for mv blankets have become thin. caus. -futumaza (futumalize) to warm up: Amu futumaze tubisi, please warm up a little milk.

-fuulula (fuuluzi) v.t. to kill to finish off ailing stock: to (accidentally) kill old or infirm people: Pulu ve ha i safola, mu y 'o ifualula, this ox is unlikely to heal so go and slaugh-ter it: Mu .vike mwa lwani.sa mueenr-bele vo, rrru ka mufuulula, do not fight with this old man or you might finish him off. rel.

-fuululela (fuululezi) to ~ for some one. caus. -fuululisa (fuululisize) to order or to help to ~.

-fuumuka (fuumukile) v.i. to swim fast (fish); to run fast (person) rel. -fuumukela (fuumukezi) to run fast towards. caus. -fuumukisa (fuumu-kisize) to cause to run fast.

-fuwa-fuwa (fuwa-fuwile) v.i. to be late in starting a journey. der. lifuwa-fuwa.

-fuyaula (fuyauzi) or -fuyola (fuyozi) v.t. to bless: Mulimu a mi fuyole God bless you (refers also to an aged person blessing his or her offsring, blessing which is usually accompanied by a gentle spitting) der. mbuyoti. syn. -tohono-lofaza.

-fuyuka (fuvukile) v.i. (1) to be cx-hausted. tircd: (2) to be rcduced hl hulk as foodstuffs after long cook-ing. caus. -fuyula (fuyuzi) or-fu!u-kisa ifuvukisize) (1) to exhaust: .Uu.vebe:; wo, u nifulu:i, this work has cxhausted me. (2) to be able to perfornl a heav~; dut~a Mu.vehe:i uo, ni uJi/lu:i, I have becn able to finish this difficult work. fig to tame. to brcak in a strong charac-ter int. -fuyukelela (fuyukelezi) to be completel! exhaustcd: fig to becomc tractable. tamc (Xnith ref-ercnce to a wild character).

fuzana (ba-) n. poor. indigcnt person. syn. mubotana.

-fuzela (fuzezi) v.t. (1) to blow the fire: Banana nn/ u 'o fi/:ela n1///i/o u ka tinza childrcn. go and hlo~ thc fire for it might go out. (2) to IlliX 'hulache' ~sith milk (as in the ex-precsion: ku fi/:ela huirohe!. der, mufuzeli. rel. -fuzelela (fuzelezi) to ~ for someolle cuas. -fuzelisa (fu-zelisize) to order ot to help to ~.

-fwacuka (fwacukile) .i. to be rc-ie.lsed. to be sprung (as a snare) Katwn ka f aeukile. the snare has sprung.

-fwacula (fwacuzi) v.t. to release a snare.

-fwakaela (fwakaezi) v.i. to tramp: H'a na mulalo vakata u twakaela fela inge nxunl uani. he has no-where to livc and is X anderinrl ahout just like a hird. der. sifwaku-fwaku.

-fwakuka (fwakukile) v.i. to die (animals): .Vja l a ka i feakukile ms dog has perished. (This verb is not applied to human beings except in contempt.)

-fwalinganya (fwalinganyize) or -fwalingela (fwalingezi) v.t. to rum-mage, to throw things about.

-fwanjingela (fwanjingezi) v.t. as -fwanyaula.

-fwankula (fwankuzi) v.i. to run at full speed. caus. -fwankulisa (fwan-kulisize) to cause to ~: Se vi mu fuankl/liva eualo kini'i what is making him run so fast'?

-fwanyafwanya (fwanyafwanvize ) v .t. to d a lilage: h'i nrairi l a f is an ! a-tuanli:e vi:unra va ka7 who has dalilaged my hasket'? syn. -fonya-fonya.

-fwanyaula (fv anvauzi) v.t. to damage. to spoil. syn. -sinva.

-fwanyinga (fwanyingile) or -fwa-nyingela (fwanyingezi) v.t. to scamp something, to do something carelessl! (in reference to building and thatching) fig. to give an un-satisfactor! hearillg to a casc: I itaha ra ka ha li fizamingile ku h00n11/, the hearing of m! case ~XIS purposcls misman;lged. ssn. -fv anjingela. rel. -fwan~ingelela (fwanyingelezi) to do ;; certaill piece of work carelessl! for some-one.

-fwanata (fwairati/e) .1 (i) to hold tightl!, to grip somcolle N ith both hands: (I .vike wa ni feunata cwalo, do not hold me so tightly: (2) to heip oneself indiscreetly to some-thing. svn. -fanata.

-fweka (fwekile) v.i. & v.t. to land. to come or to be ashore: Ba lisepe ba fwekile mahani the paddlers landed yesterday: to bring (a canoe or a barge) ashore: A mu fweke mukolo kapili kubu ki lteo. quickly bring the canoe to the shore for a hippo is coming. der. Iifwekelo. rel. -fwekela (fwekezi) to land at, on: BafuluXi batweke i kwu Mulamba the paddlers have landed at Mulamba. caus. -fwekisa (fwekisize) to order or to help someone to land.

-fwempauka (fwempaukile) v.i. to walk hurriedly. rel. -fwempaukela (fwempaukezi) to walk hurriedly to (a place): Mutu l ani u Juempuu-kela kai? where is that person hur-ryhig to? caus. empaukisa ( fwem-paukisize) to cause someone to walk hurriedly.

-fwempula (fwempuzi) v.t. to snatch. to take without permission, to seizc quickly (as someone out of temper): Ki mairi IU til'o Juen1pula muXuma ua kafa7 who has taken away my hoe without permission?

-fwifwilikana (fwifwilikanile) v t to act greedilv: Mu sike mew /iviJwili-kana huhohe ho eualo, mu tshele ni i1ti ahele hona hande don't hurry to the food like that wait until I givc you vour share. cf: -tubilikana.

-fwisauka (fwisaukile) v.i. to spill (out of): Me-i a mea hemele a fei-sauka, the water is spilling out of the bucket.

<div>G

G g pronounced as 'g' in 'get' In Silozi 'g- always combines with 'n' i.e: Ngawhela, ngana, ngongo, etc. with a few exceptions for words of foreign origin.

gauda (li-) n. Afrik. gold. fig. ans tuko. valuable thing.

gavana or gabana (ma- or li) n. Eng. goverrnor (obs)

-gintuka (gintukile) v.t. Toka-l.era. to dance with great exertion (especially at a beer party). der. mugintuko

<div>H

H h pronounced as in the aspirate 'h' at thc beginning of a word in English i.e. hand, heaven. etc... In the .ase of adverbs. how ever, such as: hahulu, ham0ho~ etc . the initial 'h' is hardin audible.

ha! neg. part. not. Ha ni vihi, I do not kno~.

ha2, pref. of adverbs derived from adjectives and numbers: Hande, vvell: hanata, often: haheli, twice; halalu, three times, etc . ..

ha3, conj. (1) w hen Ha h/ Jlta. w hen e arrive: (2) if: Ha ha lata. if thex like: (3) prefix or ufTix of word.s formilig a collJunction: HaSha, if, hl case: haisi, except, unless: hai-ali, eversince, never: niha. al-though. even if: niha ili. kapa . . either . or (after a negation): neither.. nor..

ha4, interj. of surprise. ah' ha.'

-habalala (habalalile) v.i. to look hungry (a tall person with a fhit stomach). spec. exp. Ku hahalala n1uaysaka, to look thin and hungrs altilough ~ell dressed in a suit: to walk with a stoop.

-habelela (habelezi) s.t. to monopo-lise. to clahil a larger share than that ginen t'rom the estate of a dead relative: to stand for .syn. -amenena.

habeli, adv. twice

habo, adv. (i) at one's home: hako l uhin~ia, at Lubinda's home: u ile haho, he has gone home, (?) habo' combhies N ith emphatic pronouns thus: haho hma, at our home: habo nlina, at xour home: haho hona, at their holile: (3) 'habo' combines with possessive pronouns thus uwhaho, halraho, a relation. relations of his: uahaho h/na. hahaho lIH111, tI rchltion. rclations of ours. etc . . cf. mwanahabo.

-habula (habuzi) ^.t. to eat (draining liquid from the hand)

habusa, ads. the follox ing da! (re-ferring to the night giving wa! to da~s n )

hae] (ma-) n. (i) home: .Vi sn kea hae. I am going home: Jolotolo la nlvtn hae, domestic animal. (9) ad. haesl/, at mx home: haenu, at vour home. (3) used with possessive pronouns: ahe.su, bahe.su, relation. relations of mine: uahem/, hahenu, reiatioll, relations of yours, etc . . . cf. mwanahesu. (4) nruae.sl/, nru-haem/. my your companion, felloB worker. (5) interj. bahesu! I sav' idiom. exp. ku kena n1;z~a hae, to get paid. to have good luck.

hae2, poss. pron. 3d person singular (class: mu-ba) his. her: .N'ja la hae, his dog: ml/heleki wa hae, her ser-vant.

hafu (ma-) n. Eng. half: Munitefe/a kea teiri hafi/, give me only half of it.

-hafula (hafuzi) v.t. Fng. to cut in v o: to cut off a piece (of some-thing) from (something). to reduce. to halve

-hahuha (hahuhile) v.i. to get torn (applied to V oven materials): Baki la ka i hahuhile, my jacket is torn. ef. -pazuha. freq. -hahaula (ha-hauzi) to tear to pieces again and agam.

-hahula ( hahuzi) s.t. to tear, to rend. to lacerate: .Vja le i hahu:i henrhe la ka, this dog has torn ms shirt. ef. -pazula.

hahulu. adv. (1) much: Muluti lo u latew hahull/ ki hatu, this teacher is much loved hs peopie: too much: l' .silse ua lunga haXull/ li:uai nrew husunso, do not put too much salt hl the relish: (n) Chicil!^ eSPe"i;ill!' particularl!: cf. sihulu. (3) When follo~sing all adJective or all adverh. hahl/ll/ stands for vers: i' seheli:e hande hahl/ll/, he worked v er! well

haiba, conj. if (used in a conditional clausc) Haiha u lata kl/ taha. u tahe kamuso, if you want to come, come tomorrovv. svn. kaba.

-haila1 (hailile) v.t. to poulid grain quickly.

-haila2 (hailile) v.t. to cause great de-struction (as someone killing many birds in one shot, or lightning making havoc of cattle, or an angry person breaking household goods): Pula i hailile likonru zeirata mu.n mulaka wa bo ndate, lightning killed many cattle in my father's kraal.

haili, conj. as for, as regards, with regard to: Haili wena u kutele ku eza cwalo, as far as you are con-eerned you will obviously do the same agam.

-haina (hainile) v.t. Eng. to iron,

haisali, conj. since: Haisali busa, hakuna se ni cile, I did not eat ans-thing since early this morning. syn. isamba.

haisi, conj. unless, apart. except. then: Hakuna la ka eza cwalo, haivi sipulunruki, nobody would do so, apart from a stupid person: Haisi wena, ki munian'a hao' if it is not you, then It is your brother: Hakuna l a ka kona nru.sebe,i wo, haisi wena, nobody might do that work except you.

-haka1 (hakile) v t Sotho. to forget pass. -hakwa (hakilwe): Ni hakilwe ki litaba I forgot the matter (The passive form is commonly used )

-haka2 (hakile) v.t. to handcuff: Ki lisholi lo. ha mr/ hakile lisimhi, this man is a thief. they have hand-cuffed him.

hakakarii adv. Sotho. so much: Ni mu lata hakakani? I love her so much '

hakana adv. so mans times (as shown hy the number of fingers extended): see: hukana.

-hakanyeha (hakanyehile) v.i. to become confused, mixed up; to come or go at the wrong time; to be out of time (music) caus. -haka-nyisa (hakanyisize) to confuse, to embarrass

haketalizoho, adv. five times

-hakuluha (hakuluhile) v.i. to melt (fat, etc ); to thaw (ice, etc ) syn. -shengunuka. pass. -hakuluhelwa (hakuluhezwi) to get warm

-hakulula (hakuluzi) v.t. to remind someone of a forgotten matter. to correct someone's misinterpreta-tion: IYi na ya mu hakuluzi, na sa timelezwi sa na ka bulela; I took him back to the point, for he had forgotten what to say

-hakulusa (hakulusize) v.t. to melt, to warm up.

hakuswani, hakuswanyani, adv. con-cisely, briefly.

-halal (halile) v.t. to rake, to gather sweepings. der. hala. rel. -halela (halezi) to ~ for someone caus. -halisa (halisize) to order or to help to ~

hala2 (li-) n. rake (from -hala)

-halala (halalile or halazi) v.t. to be discontended with something (in-adequate wages, rations or bar-gains): Ni halala .sico, I am discontended with my ration der. muha-lali. caus.

-halalisa (halalisize) to displease, to dissatisfy someone

-halaleha (halalehile) v.i. Sotho. (1) to be holy der. sihalaleo. (2) to Iook fine (especially of Africans born with a light complexion). cf. -buheha, -kateleha.

halalu, adv. three times

hali, prep. (1) mwahali, inside. among, between: Mu vo mateha ndu mwahali, go ard plaster inside the house; mwahali a batu, among the people; mwahali n. mandu so, between those houses (2) fahali, in the middle, across: Mu pume muluwani fahali a simu, cut the boundary across the garden.

-halifa (halifile) v.i. to become angry, to fly into rage: Mutu yo u halifa fela, this person flies into a ragc for nothilig der. kalifo. cf. -twima, -nyema, rel. -halifela (hal-ifezi) to be angry with somcone to be anerv for some lelsoll: Mrr sike nrita rri /urlrfehr el~(r/o~ do not be so angrv with mc caus. -halifisa (halifisize) to mlke someone angrys to irritate. rec. -halifisana (halifisani or halifisallile) to irri-tltC elch other

-halika (halikile .t. to fryv to roast der. mahalikwa. fig. to keep somcone wliting long in thc sun. to work long undel I blkillg SUI1. rel.

-halikela (halikezi) to~ for someone caus. -halikisa (halikisize) to ordcr or to help someolic to~. fig to cause someolle to wait hl thc un. int. -halikela (halikelezi) to~ the whole lot.

halimu, adv. (1) kwahalhnrr. above upwlrds 'I`alinur kwaluliDnr/, look upwlr(is (if iliside I house ll/Wa-lralhnr/' will be used) spec exp. Ku felel(/ nilw(ril(rlDnin to be startled (') fall(rlinlrr a on top of Falr((linru a lilurldl/, oll the sumillit of thc hill: ovcl l/ ni Ive.i falialinil/. he fell ovel me: tkA) hl addition to fahalimu a ze bulezvvi, ni sa ekeza taha itinwi: hl additioll to what has heell said. I add yet another point der. Iihalimu.

halishumi, adv. ten times

-halula (haluzi) v.t.t to speak angrily to someone (as a quick tempcred person).

-hama (hamile) v.t. to milk. fig. to overcome someone (as in a fight). to render powerless der. muhami, ilikami, sihameh), kamelo, muha-melo, rel. -hamela (hamezi) to milk for. caus. -hamisa (hamisize) to order or to help someone to milk. freq. -hamaka (hamakile) to milk a cow repeatedlya regardless of its calf inv. -hamulula (hamu-luzi) to milk again. a second or third thile. syn. -napulula.

hamoho, (1) conj. with Mo y'o leke-hwla lizn(/i ll(lmoho rli nil/lola. go and huy salt with some soap. (2) adv. together. at the same time: Burl(te ki ku kalo ll(nnollo ni ha b(l/lWi, the best wav is to beein at thc same time as others

-hamuka (hamukile) or hamuha (hamuhile) v.i. to get squeezed, wrulig (as wet clothes) to be emp-tied (IS howels of a slaughtered animal).

-hamula (hamuzi) v.t. to squeeze; to w ring (out). to dischargtz the contents of: to press heavilv on: Mu vo h((lril/la likubo ze ta/7i.sizlce. go and wring out the washed: blankets ku h(mil/l(l lel1ll0le. to squeeze lemon rel. -hamulela (hamulezi) to squeeze for some-one caus. -hamulisa (hamu(ha-mulisize) to order or to help someone to~. int. -hamulelela (haF mulelezi) to squeeze thoroughly

hamulahoz adv. afterwlrds. later: Ni ka mi bona hamulaho, I shall see you later. cf. mwamulaho.

-hana (hanile) v.t. to refusez to denv. to disclailil. to resist Ne ey 1(1r(l kl/ ~s1l/ sil~(ll(l, kosl(7 1/ Il(l/lile; I wanted to marrv het. hut she re-fused. der. kan, muhanelo. rel. -hanela (hanezi) to sav no to: to refuse something from: Ba ml/ h(lriezi kupo laa h(lez they hlVC turned down his request: Mu(ul'(l ka u ni h(lriezi lico m(lharlis IllY child refused food vesterdav caus. -hanisa (hanisize) to forhid~ to prevent Ki pula ye rli harlisize ku taha mabarli, rain prevented my coming yesterday. int. -hanelela (ha nelezi) to refuse definitely. rec. -hanana (hanani or hananile) to dis-agree with, to dislike each others to be at variance: to divorce. freq. -hananga to have the habit of re-fusing, of denying. ref. -ikanisa ( ikanisize) to deprive oneself of something: Mwanana yo u ikanisa ku ca kakuli u nvemile, this child re-fuses to eat, because he is vexed.

hande, adv. wells rightly, gentlyb etc ... Kunola hande, to write well: Mu ezize hande ha mu tile kwanu, you were right in coming here: Mu .vwa/e hande mbututu, hold the baby gently. Ki hande, well done ! Hande-hande or hande-nde. very well: hande hahulu, beautifully, perfectly.

hane, adv. four times.

-hanelela (banelezi) v.t. (1) to stick to, to persist against opposition Yena mwa bupaki bwa hae u hane-lezi mwa niti, when giving evidence he stuck to the truth (2) to refuse definitely. caus. -haneleza (hanele-lize) to cause someone to stick to something, to constrain someone

-hangula (hanguzi) v.t. to drink beer syn. nwa, kokola.

hanu, lihanu (ma-) n. the inside of the mouth; mwahanu, in the mouth: U .vike wa ni kena mwahanu, do not interrupt me while I speak

-hanyeza (hanyelize) v.t. to oppose, to disapprove, to disagree, to pro-test: Na na hanyeza mwa miFupulo ya mina, I myself disagree with your views der. muhanyezi, ka-nyezo, mahani or mahanyi.

hanyinyani, adv. a little, sparingly, nearly: ku tusa han! invani, to give a litile help: hanyinvani ni holofale, I nearly got hurt.

haata, adv. many times, often, generally. neg. / vi hanata, seldomb rarely.

hawi, adv. once. Ni i ezize hanwi, I did it once

-hapa (hapile) v.t. to capturez to conquer! to despoil: Sapili Malozi ne ba hapanga likomu ni batus for-merly Malozi used to capture cattle and slaves. der. muhapiz mu-hapiwa! mahahapa. fig. to find out by spying, to acquire knowledge of: Ku hapa miFupulo ya batu. to find out people's intentions, rel.-hapela (hapezi) to take from, to capture: to acquire for: Ba lu hapezi likomu za luna ka buata, they have captured a lot of cattle from us; u hapezi bana ba hae liluo leliata, he has acquired great wealth for his children caus. -hapisa (hapisize) to assist in cap-turing; to cause people and cattle to be captured int. -hapelela (ha-pelezi) to capture the lot stat ig. -hapeha (hapehile) to become con-vinced: Ni hapehile ka manzwi a' bulezi mutu yo, I am convinced bv what that man said hapeha also means to get addicted to.

hape, adv. again, a new: hape ni hape, again and again.

-hapeleza (hapelelize) or-hapilikeza (hapilikelize) v.t. to compel, to force, to constrain: Mu sike mwa ni hapeleza ku nyalwa ku munna ve ni .va /ati, do not force me to marry a man I do not love. der. kapelezo. syn. -subalala, -subama. ref. -ikapew leza (ikapelelize) to force oneself to do something,

-hasa (hasize) v.t. to sow by throw-ing seeds all over a garden: to broadcast seeds all ovcr k'umu.sa ni I (* hasa mahele nrua .sinu/ l a ka, to-morrou I an1 going to sow kaffir-corn in mx mirdcn. fig. to spread neus. rel. -haseza (haselize) to ~ for some011e caus. -hasisa ( hasi-size) to order or to help someonc to ~. int. -haseleza (haselelize) to sou all the seeds. freq. -hasaka (ha-sakile) fig to spread neus rcpcat-cd i!

-hasana (hasani or hasanile) v.i. to dispersc: to become scattered ias people aftcr a galtherilig. or cattle . ) fig. to be spreadhag (news. rul11ors, etc . .) rel. -hasanela (ha-sanezi) (1) to run aw;ly (from): Bana ha hae ha nrl/ ha.sane:i, his childrell have deserted him. (2) to sc;lttcr in or to: Bahe.su kau/ela ha ha.iane i wszuw njanji, all my rela-tions have scattered along the iinc of rail. pass-hasanelwa (hasanezwi) to be ab;lndoncd. deserted bv. int. -hasanelela (hasanelezi) to become colilpletely dispersed. ref. -lkasa-nela (ikasanezi) to be dispcrsing in or to (in reference to a vill;lge commilnitv uhose members arc deserting OWilig to discord).

-hasanya (hasansize) v.t. to dis-perse, to publi;h fig. to spread (neus) f;lr and u ide.

-hasula', (hasuzi) v.t. to strike. to beat uitll a canc.

-hasula2, (hasuzi) v.i. to hurry (as somconc sel1t on urgcnt business): Ml/ ha.u/le leela, nrl/ ,sike mea keh/-lrela kol~-uinsi. go straight to yollr destill.ltioin do not go ;lnyuhere ()Llt ol' \ otlr \\r;1\.

-hata (hatile) v.i. & .t. to tread. to set the foot doun: to ualk on s.ll11;1N.1 h.lilde vI k~l h.lt;l biltl~. x~.tlh .alefulln lest you tread on peopic's tocs der. muhato. muha-telo. fig. to overcol11es to beat. to surpass: ,11u a ta(ubo la luna ki na ra ha hatile unonrlfwh(ls m our exan1ll1-.ltion I beat them all this vear. caus. -hatisa (hatisize ) (1) to cause someone to tread or turn over: l' anraise hande u ka hati. a hatu nrota, drive slou Iy lest you rul1 over pcopic. (') to print (see: -hatisa) int. -hatelela (hatelezi) fig. (1) to beat completely: Yena u ha hatele:i kal/Jela msca .s-itopa sa hona, he zot the best rcsults of all h1 his Ci;lSS: (2) to 'boss- someone: Na ha ni lati nrl/.sali ku ni hatelela, I don't likc to be 'bossed' by a uoman. rec. -hatelana (hatelani) to become pressed (doun), rammed: Bupi hu hatelsmi mea ,si:uma, thc mealie me;ll has been pressed doun in thc basket. freq. -hataka (hatakile) or -hatikela (hatikezi) to tread under fo ot ag;tin and again. syn. -lyating-ela.

-hatisa thatisize) to print. der. mu-hatisi, katiso. muhatisezo. rel. -hati-seza (hatiselize) to print for some-one or for some rc;tson.

-hauhela ( hauhezi ) v.t. Sotho. to h;tve pity UpO11. to forgive. der. muhau. syn. -shemuba. cf: -swalela.

-hazela (hazezi) v.i. Sotho. to become cold: h'avenu milkl/li u ta ha:ela ml/ nrl/ te kuho sa huheli, to-day the patient u ill feel the cold. so give him an extra bianket. der. muhazela. cf. -bata. caus. -hazelisa (hazelisize) to causc someone to be cold.

-heba ihebile) s.t. to start to cut a neu forest gardell. svn. -shendeka. rel. -hebela (hebezi) t;) ~ for somc-one. caus. -hebisa (hebisize) to hcipt() ~.

-heha-heba iheba-hebile) v.i. to run aroulid (as a uem;ll1 rcjoichig or in, distress . . or as a cou looking for its c;llf) der. muheba-hebi. rel. -

heba-hebela (heba-hebezi) to run somewhere: komu lani i heha-hehela kuw mulaka ku nruan'a lona, that cow is runl1ing to the kraal. to her calf. caus. -heba-hebisa (heba-hebisize) to causc someone to ~

-hela ( helile ) or -hela-hela ( hela-helile) or -helana (helani) or -helima (helimile) or heluma (helu-mile) v.i. to rambic. to wander about u ithout purpose. der. muhela-heli, mahela, mihela. caus. -helisa (helisize), -hela-helisa (hela-helisize), -helanisa (helanisize), he-limisa (helimisize), -helumisa (helu-misize) to cause someone to ~.

-helula (heluzi) v.t. to remove thc-decayed part of a fruit beforc eating.

-hema (hemile) s.i. to ualk fast. syn. -akufa. rel. hemela (hemezi ) to hurry to, to hasten to caus. -hemisa (hemisize) to cause some-one to ~

hembe (li-) n. Afrik. shirt hemele, lihemele (ma-) n. bucket. pail.

-heta (hetile) v.i. (usually -iheta (ihe-tile) to turn the hcad backuards. to look behind. svn. -setuka, -temuna.

hewa! hewa-hewa! interj. of jon (as whcn someone finds something that uas lost or wcicomes a child home).

-hobeka (hobokile) v.i. to simulatc fear and run (as children at pias): to flee in fcar of someone syn. -saba. rel. -hobokela (hobokezi) to flee to . int. -hobokelela ( hohoke-lezi) to run away for good.

-hoha (hohile) v.t. (1) to pull. to dretu (a sledge. ctc ...) to haul (up): A nrl/ hohe nrr/kolo. haul up the canoe. der. n1uhohis mahoha, si-hohiso, sihoho, kohano. (') to inhale (as snuff or hemp): to drink beer heartily. (3) to attract. to fascinate: Ya na ni .srshenro kanlita u hoha hatl/, a kind heart alu ays at-tracts people. rel. -hohela (hohezi) to pull touards: to pull for SOlilC-onc: Hohela nil/krvio kuw likanilel. haul thc ca!10e to the shorc: }'a ni Irohela lie(v ra ka kea h~/e lV; nrairi'< ho ::al1 bring mc mn crop homc on thc sledge'? caus. hohisa (hohisize) (o order or to hcip someone (o pull. fig. to entice. to lurc. int. -hohelela ( hohelezi ) to pull completely (;ts a canoe agroulld). to catch up with. to spccd touLtrds to ovcrtake: Mu hone Ikeena lani 1 e hohelela kuw likonrl/. look at that crocodile catching up with thc cattic (crosshig a rixer). rec. -hohana hohani or . hohanile) to pull from oppositc sides as in a tug-ol'-war: (fig) to contest. freq. -hohaka (hohakile) to pull. to drag rcpcat-edl~. inv. -hoholola (hoholozi) to pull bx thc halid as someolle un-wilih1g to submit: (refcrs aiso to a dog dragging a prey with its mouth ).

-hohela (hohezi) v.t. to brh1g a skirt or an Africall kilt to thc desircd sizc at thc uaist.

-hohoha (hohohile) v.i. to cra~l. to cretp, der. sihahahi. svn. -kalaha. rel. -hohobela (hohohezi) to craul touards caus. -hohohisa (hohohi-size) to cause to crawl

-hohoma ( hohomile ) .i. to be hoarsc der. mahohoma. svn. -silela, -silelwa.

-hoifa (hoifile) .i. to restrail1. to control. to contain oneself' in a rc-spcctful manner: to curb one's tongue caus. -hoifisa (hoifisize) to c;luse to ~.

-hola1 (holile) .t. (1) to take uhat littic food remains in a pot or platc: Mu fe hanana ha hole ta mikeke. let the children eat what remailas on the plates. der. muholi. (2) to rcccive one's wages: Ni holile nrali a ka niahani, I received mx pay yesterday. (3) to draw food ra-tions: Lu ka hola sico kaniu. o. we shall draw our food ration to-morro\A. (4) spec. exp. ku hola ml/tl/, to kill someone hl an ob-scure way lit. to take his soul out of his body) (withcraft). der. muhole. svn -tukula, -vomona. -komba. rei. -holela (holezi) (1) to eat left-overs (as children eating food ieft by parents) (2) to draw money or rations for someone. caus. -holisa (holisize) (1) to order or to heip someone to gather re-mains of food, to leave food on the PI<ltc for someone (2) to pay wages. to issue food rations. syn. -luela. int. -holelela (holelezi) to finish up what remains (of food. etc . . .).

hola2 (ii-) n. Eng hour. (Rare) svn. nako.: Ki lihola ce kai ku zuu kuw Senanga ku ya kea Mongu ka mota? ho~s many hours does it take from Senanga to Mongu by car?

-holofala (holofezi or holofalile) v.i. (i) to get hurt: L'sike uu hapali.sa til7a u ka holofala, do not play with the knife or you will get hurt: (2) to become maimed, infirm. crippled. der. sihole, buhole, kolo-falo. rel. -holofalela (holofalezi) to get hurt at (a place) U il'o holo~a-lela k)ra mikoti, he got hurt at the mines. caus. -holofaza (holofalize) or -holofalisa (holofalisize) to hurt someone: to cause something to hurt someone. (see: -holofaza) int.

-holofalelela ( holofalelezi ) to become completely impotent or crippled

-holofaza (holofalize) v.t. to hurt someone: Ni mu holofali:e ka tira. i hurt hhn with a knife. der. kolo-fazo. rec. -holofazana (holofazani or holofazanile) to hurt each other. ref. -lkolofaza (ikolofalize) to hurt oneself: Ni ikolqtalize kuw mun-usna, I have hurt my finger.

-holoha (holohile) v.i. to come home (as cattle in the evening). fig. to pass away (as someone dving of old age). syn. -kuta. caus. -holohisa (holohisize) or -holosa (holosize) to drive cattle home in the evening.

hona', adv. right, just: Ki hona, it is all right; hona la. JUst here, just now, hona fo. just there, at that verx moment.

-hona2 (honile) v.i. to snore to growl (dogs): to grunt (pigs). der. muho-nyi. rel. -honela (honezi) to growl at. caus. -honisa (honisize) to cause to snore: to cause to growl. ref. -ihonisa (Ihonisize) or-ikonisa (iko-nisize) to pretend to snore: Ba iko-ni.sa, ha ha sika lohala, thev are pretending to snore, they are not asleep.

-hona3(honile)v.t.toweaken,topull down, to reduce someone to noth-ing: Butuku bu nru honile, his illness has reduced him to nothing. stat.

-honeha (honehile) to become very low, to be past recovery. too far gone.

-honona (hononile) v.i. to be dissat-isfied. caus. -hononisa (hononisize) to cause someone's dissatisfaction

-honyela (honyezi) or -honyeza (ho-nyelize) v.i. to withdraw the head (tortoise).

hopani1 (li-) n. iguana. syn. mbulu.

hopani2 (li-) n. thick-leafed forest plant used as relish by Toka-Leya people.

hotela (li- or ma-) n. Eng. hotel.

-hotola (hotozi or hotolile) v.i. to cough: v.t. to expectorate. der. si-hotolwa. rel. -hotolela (hotolezi) to cough towards someone. caus. -ho-tolisa (hotolisize) to cause to cough.

-hoza (hozize) v.t. to be hke some-one, To have a resemblance to ~;omeone, to take after someone (as a child after his parents): Mwa-nana ko u hozize kuku uu hae, this child resembies his grandfather. der. sihozo, sihoziso. syn. -feka.

hu! interj. used by someone lost in the forest.

-huba (hubile) v.i. to walk noisily (as people or cattle hurrying together to some place).

-hubulula ( hubuluzi ) v.t. to scold someone violently. syn. -hupa. -hu-hubala (huhubalile or huhubezi) v.i. to get out of shape, to become de-formed by dryness (as a hide or a skin still unscraped). der. muhu-hulu. caus. -huhubalisa (huhubali-size) to cause to ~.

-huhula1 ( huhuzi ) v.t. ( i ) to gather to-gether sweepings, dead leaves or rubbish. der. muhuhuli, sahuhula. (2) to take everything away: Musal'a ka u huXuzi liapalo za hae kaufela rnua ndu. my wife has taken away all her clothes from my house. rel. -huhulela (huhulezi) (i) to gather sweepings for some-one: (2) to take away from some-one. caus. -huhulisa (huhulisize) (I ) to order or to help someone to ~. (2) to order someone to take awas everything int. -huhulelela (huhule-lezi) to gather up everything: to take away everything.

-huhula2 (huhuzi) v.i. & v t to hark (at) to howi: rVja i huFl/la ngu e. the dog is barking at the leopard. der. sahuhula. cf. -caula. rel. -huhulela (huhulezi) to bark in or at (a place). caus. -huhulisa (huhulisize) to cause to ~.

-huhumuha (huhumuhile) v.i. to swell to rise (as dough containing ieavel1). der. muhuhu. svn. -fufu-muka. fig. to flare up in ragc. caus. -huhumusa (huhumusize ) to causc to ~.

-hukela (hukezi) v.t. to thread a needle to string heads. fish etc . . . der. muhukeli. syn. -fululela. fig. (i) to squeeze someone under the arm: (2) to come first to surpass all others. rel. -hukelela (hukelezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -hukelisa (hukelisize) to order or to heip someone to ~. int. -hukelelela (hu-kelelezi) to thread or to string thc whole lot.

-hulal (hulile) v.i. (1) to grox . to become tall to become of age: Mbon~i hula hande nrwa mazulu, maize grows weil on the mounds: nrutu wa hulile. adult. an adult persor. (2) to be great old: Ba hulile .se li nradala. they are ad-vanced in years. they are alreads grey-heards. der. buhulu buhulo kuliso kulo. rel. -hulela (hulezi) to grow up to be brought up at or in (a place): U Srulezi kai" where have vou been brought up" caus. -hulisa (hulisize) (1) to bring up. to edu-cate: [' huli.sizwe ki kuku wa hae, he was brought up by his grandfather: (2) to raise to a higher position: (3) to enlarge. fig. to exaggerate: Ba hulivi:e fela litaba ka buhata, thes falsely cxaggerated the matter. rel. -huliseza (huliselize) to bring up for someone.

-hula2 (hulile) v.i. to fornicate iespe-cially of women). der. Iihule. buhule.

hule adv. & interj. (always pre-ceded by 'kwa') (i) A'uaXule P'.lr: ki uakhu/e, it is far: kwahule ni, far from. (2) (interjection of dendil): not at all: Ki keaXule. ha ni na ku ku Ja ezul(7, not at all. i shall not givc xou alivthing like that' der. huhule, muzwahule.

hulu, adj. old, great, importal1t. paralmoLIlit: ,l.lutu lonil/hulu. an agcd or h1lportalit person: Mu/ena lonnalrulub the Paramount chief: halu ha hakuhn the adults. der. huhulu, muhulwani,

-humalela (humalezi) v.t. to seizc someone ~sith both halids.

-hupa1 (hupile) v.t. to sip, to taste caus. -hupisa (hupisize) to give someolne a sip. rec. -hupisana (hu-pisani or hupisanile) to sip from a cup gOb1g round. leaving enough for others. freq. -hupaka (hupakile) to sip novs alid again.

-hupa2 (hupile) v.t. to insult. to abuse. svn. -huhulula.

-hupula (hupuzi) .t. (1) to think. to ponder. to consider: Mu hupula cuairi niza raha le "what do you think of this" (2) to thhak of, to rc-melilber: k.'u,l7a la nrina ni sa i hupula. I stili remember your re-quest. (3) to intend to: Mununl-uwha ni hus7ula ku zaha ndu s etuna, it is my intention to build a large house this year. (4) to go to: Mu hu/uxia kai'9 \ here are you going" lit where do Eou intend to go?) Ni hupula kua Mangu, 1 am going to Mongu. der. kupulo, muhupulo, kupuzo. rel. -hupulela (hupulezi) to thh1k of someone or of something with a definite intention: Ku hurJu-lela nustu bumamee. to mistrust, to suspsect: to have esil designs against somebody. caus. -hupulisa (hupulisize) to remind. rec. -hupuli-sana (hupulisani) to remind each other. rec. -hupulana (hupulani) to visit or to help cach other. reF. -ikupula (ikupuzi) to reflect. to con-sider, to make up one's mind. rel. -ikupulela (ikupulezi) to conceive, to imagine things b) oneself. caus -ikupulisa (ikupulisize) to remind oneself. to take the initiative.

-huta (hutile) v.t. to scrub. to rub hard: Mu hute fa tafi~le. scrub the table clean. fig. to beat someonc with a stick. rel. -hutela (hutezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -hutisa (huti-zise) to order or to help someone to ~. fre4. -hutaka (hutakile) fig to beat repeatedly.

-hutuza (hutulize) v.t. to earn a hirge sal.lry: Naza u hutu:a mali a mairata ka musebeei uu hae u a bululli, Nawa makes lots of money as a con(ractor.

-huwa (huwile) v.i. & v.t. to shout. to call (as someone in need of help): ku huvsu mutu. to call some-one with a loud voice. der. muhuwo, muhuwelo, sihuwo, kakuwa. syn. -shaela. rel. -huwela (huwezi) to call loudly on behalf of someone. caus. -huwisa (huwisize) to cause someone to shout.

-huweleza (huwelelize) v.t. to pro-ciaim. to give public notice (as a touncrier) der. muhuwelezi, muhu-welezo, muhuwelezezo. rel. -huwele-zeza (huwelezelize) to call Ver! loudly on someone's behalf.

-hwala-hwala (hwala-hwalile) v.i. to be restless (as a cou about to calve or as someone iooking for food uhen starving).

-hwasa (hwasize) v.i. to be coarse. gritty (as 'huhobe' made of badlx sifted meal): Buhobe bau hake.sha bau heusa n1uahanu, red millet 'buhohe' is gritts in the mouth.

-hwaya (hwaile) a.t. to leave a rough track b} pushing down tall grass or reeds as cattle returning to the fhits or canoes cutting through grass patches) syn. -faya. fig. to have a big stomach. always being hungry. stat. -hwaveha (hwavehile) to be V ide (as a track) fig to have an empty stomach.

-hwela (hwezi) v.t. to cover. to mate (in reference to a bull) pass. - hwelwa (hwezwi) to be covered. to be mated (as a cow)

-hs iliva (hwili~ile) v.i. to go to al1d fro(as a croud on the occasion of a public function).

-hwimukela (hwimukezi) .t. see: -wimukela.

<div>i

Note: Rellexive verbs formed with prefix 'i' are not included here. They will be found under the verbai root, e.g. itusa appears under-tusa, ipona under-bona, etc ... It should be noted however that in many reflexive verbs a change takes place in the first con-sonant, as follows:

b becomes p. e.g. bona, ipona

f becomes p. e.g. fetula, ipetula

l becomes t, e.g. Iata, itata

h becomes k. e g. holofaza, ikolo-faza

y becomes k or c, yaha, ikahela or icahela

Before an initial vouel, 'k' is in-serted, e.g. -eza, ikeza

I, i7, pronounced as the 'i' in Ir. 'milk' etc . . . ('i' is never long as in 'fine').

i2, pron. subj. and obj. uith words without a prefix. which have the plural in li- (class (i) - li-). it: .Z\_ama i tula hahulu. meat (it) is very ex-pensive: lu i eile kautela. we have eaten it all.

i3, Prerix used with transitive verbs to give them a reflexive meaning Ku iziha, to know oneseif. See note above .

-ibalabata (ibalabatile) v.i. to trv hard to find mone) to make an urgent purchase or payment. syn. -ipatapata.

ibalelo, n. I.uvana. used h1 the ex-pression: Ba ihnlela, people of today: hana ha ihalelo ha ha ului, the vouth of today are deat' to good advice.

ibe, conj. and then, when: ... ihe nena a sin'o utew eua/(), .sa nie-nia, . . . and then. as soon as he heard this. he becarue furious.

ibo, eonj. but. houever syn. bo.

-icatela (ieatezi) v.i. to refrain fron eath1g because one is full.

-icocomeza (icocomelize) v.i. to in-troduce oneself u nexpectediv into a house. to intrude syn. -lpolyo-meza.

-icoleta (icoletile) v.t. to tie a piece of material (mulepu) round the waist.

icolwamuywandi (bo-) n. kind of small tree (hard to break).

iconga (icongile) v.i. to disappear without leaving a trace syn. -yonga fig-

-icuca (icucile) v.i. to light upon, to come across. to happen on some-thing: Ha ne ni vanrala mea mu-shitu .ve ni uo ic7~ea ta tau, kono la tokwa ku ni lwanzva, when I was walking in the forest I came across a lion. but it did not attack me.

-iculula (ieuluzi) v.i. to disappear for a long time. sen. -lewanka, -cwankama.

-icumba (icumbile) v.i. as -iculula.

-icunduta (icundutile) v.i. to long for: to be envious of (something)

-icwanka (icwankile) v.i. to disap-pear for a long time syn. -cwan- kama, -iculula.

-ifuta (ifutile) v.i. to refuse to have anything to do with evil. der. buifuti, buifuto.

-iheta (ihetile) v.i. to turn the head back syn. -heta, setuka, temuna.

-ikaca (ikacile) v.i. to be arrogant. der. muikaci, muikaco, buikaco. rel. -ikacela (ikacezi) to look down on someone: U sike ua ikacela na, don't iook down on me.

ikacana (bo-) n. Luyana. stormy rain.

-ikala (ikalile) v.i. Luyana. to sit down.

ikale, adv. Iong ago, formerly. Baikale. ancestors. syn. kale.

-ikalelwa (ikalezwi) v.i. see: -kalelwa.

ikalunda, n. phitforn1 in the Kuta where the Litunga and important guests sit

-ikambaeta (ikambaetite) v.i. to forestall. to be before hand: Na ikanrbaeta pula i sika nela kale. I must go before it rains. syn. -itahanela.

-ikambusa (ikambusize) v.t. see: -ambuka.

-ikamula (ikamuzi) v.i. to rain lightly to drizzle.

ikamunga (bo-) n. a large male wildebeest. cf. kokunu.

ikandulwa (bo) n. champion. someone who cannot be overcome (from:-kandula).

-ikangabeka (ikangabekile) v.i. to be proud. to pride oneself on something to boast of one's exploits: to be self-sufficient syn. -

ikuhumusa.

-ikanyisa (ikanyisize) v.i. to be impertinent. der. buikanyiso.

-ikashula (kiashuzi) .i. to laugh. to be joyful. to be delighted. freq. -ikashaula (ikashauzi) to show one's delight by laughing continually.

-ikata (ikatile) v.i. Only used in the expression: ku ikata makata to sit cross-legged.

-ikatulusa (ikatulusize) v.i. see -katuluha.

-ikebula (ikebuzi) v.i. see: -yebula.

-ikembeka (ikembekile) v.i. to lean forward in order to hear a conversation. cf. -embama.

-iketa (iketile) v.i. to be well, at ease: to be comfortable. having no troubles: to do things without hurrv. der. buiketo. see: -keta.

-ikimela (ikimezi) v.i. ( i ) to walk with difficulty (as a fat person); (2) to mate with difficuity on account of stoutness (a bull).

-ikokotola (ikokotozi) v.i. to encourage oneself; to become stronger. syn. -ltiisa.

-ikokoteza (ikokotelize) v.i. to get up by making an effort of will. syn. -kokotoka.

-ikola (ikozi or ikolile) v.i. to enjoy something to delight in (applied to abundant food. entertainment travel, etc . . .).

-ikumba (ikumbile) v.t. to envy. to be envious of someone: to be enviable:spec. exp. Waikumbangetela fumani musebezi' that man who found a job is enviable!

-ikumbuta (ikumbutite) v.t. to feel envious towards to desire: U sike wa ikumbuta lika ve kwahule ni wena, don't desire things which you cannot afford.

-ikumusa (ikumusize) or-ikuhumusa (ikuhumusize) v.i. to pride oneself on something to be proud to boast of one's exploits der. muikumusi, uikumuso. syn. -twanga, -ikangabeka, --ikunga. rel. -ikumuseza (ikumuselize) to be arrogant to someone.

--ikunga (ikungile) v.i. to be arrogant. der. buikungo. syn. -ikumusa,- -twanga .

ikushenge (bo-) n. Iargc .seo fish living in deep waters.

-ikwangela ( ikwangezi ) v.i. to try hard to clear oneself from the charge of a fault or crime to defend oneself

-ila, ( ilile) v.i. (1) to observe a taboo: Ba ilile bueuala nreu ndu aa bona. they have tabooed beer in their home. (2) to hold someone in awe. der. mwila cf. -tilula. rel. -llela (ilezi) to observe a taboo on behalf of someone (as a mother with regard to her baby) caus. -llisa ( ili-size) to cause someone to observe a taboo. int. -llelela ( ilelezi ) to place someone under a taboo for ever. rec. -llana (ilani) to hold each other in aze. ref. -lkila (ikilile) as rec.

-ilama (ilami) v.t. to lie heavils upon (as a serious illness): Butuku bu mu ilami, his illness keeps him down. der. Iilami.

-ileka (ilekile) v.t. to put a heavs weight on (shoulders, scale etc . . ) -ilela (ilezi) v.i. (1) to remain absent a long time. (2) to be left unculti-vated.

-ilembeka (ilembekile) v.i. see: -lem-beka.

ilia or ilva. n. beverage made of mealie meal and sour milk.

-iliateta (iliatetile or iliatetite) v.i. see: -liateta.

ilingunga (bo-) n. someone cheating cieverly in order to steal. (from: -ngunga ).

-ilukelekele or silukelekele (ho-) n. black-sn1ith Ploter Ibirdl

-ilundumuna (ilundumuzi) v.i. see: -itundumuna.

-ilungangami (bo-) n. person shivering. (froril: -ngangama)

-ima, n. mo her. my mother. (same as 'me') This noun is often used when askilig for sornething.

-imayala (bo-) n. an unlucky person who always comes back cmptyhanded from fishing or hunting, etc . . . cf. maiba.

-imayumba-yumba (bo-) n. Luyana a prodigal person. squandering money or goods on others. (irom: -yumba ).

-imayumbula (bo-) n. a hospitable person welcoming guests with gifts of iood. (fron1: -vumbula).

-imbimba (imbimbile) v.i. to eat or drink grecdily regardiess of others. -lmbotisa (imbotisize) v.t. to drink beer without stopping.

-imela (imezi) v.t. (work or people) to be hcavv on someone; to be too heavy. too difficult for somcone: Musehe.i uo ua lu imela. this work is too heavy for us. pass. -lmelwa (imezwi) to be overwhelmed. caus. -lmeza (imelize) to lie heavily upon someone, to overburden someone. ins . -lmulula ( imuluzi ) to relieve someone of a burden. rec. -lmulu-lana ( imululani or imululanile ) to help each other out of difficulty. cf. buima.

-imema (imemile) v.i. to eat without haste, at one's ease.

imilema (bo-) n. Luvana. night policeman in 'milenerii; member of the Litunga's body guard. syn. Ii-kunda-kundi.

imilombwe (bo-) n. sharpened pole of 'i ~ubwa' tree, used to fence the Litunga's vard.

imukuka (bo-) n. Luyana. a slovenls pcrson, dirty in dress and slipshod in work (especiall) a woman).

imulepu (bo-) n. Luyana. a bearded man .

imuluka (bo-) n. a very long and well made chieSs mat.

-imulula (imuluzi) v.t. to relieve someone in difficult~. to help someone in hardship. syn. -yamun-wena, -unela, -lamulela. rec. -imulu-lana (imululani) to heip each other in hardship.

-imuma (imumile) v.t. see: -muma.

imungumani (bo-) n. a solitary rock sticking out of water in the rapids.

imungungu (bo-) n. a name given in contempt to a short, ugly and slovenly man

imusheke (bo-) n. a kind of small grey fish.

imushendami (bo-) n. any object leaning (especially trees) (from: -shendama ).

imushotoki (bo-) n. Luyana. some-one out of danger and difficulties (exclusively applied to a i;lte l.i-tunga) (trom: -shotoka).

imusunga (bo-) n. a prominent war-rior (also applied to the head of an African regiment).

imutakwandu (bo-) n. name applied to a deceased Litungil: lmutakwandu Leuanika, the late Lewa-nika.

imutongo (bo-) n. a chief herdsn1an.

imuyulu (bo-) n. knob-billed yoose. fig. a person with a big nose.

-imyanguta (imyangutite) v.i. to tastc. to cnjoy the taste of.

-imyaula (imvauzi) v.t. to eat (with reference to someone's first meal of the day): B~ra li hu sa 11~. a ionaoli esSirlsi, since day break he had not had a single bite.

-ina (inzi) a.i. (1) to sit dos n: Mn im /atasi, pleasc sit dowm (2) to sta~: hu ina lisuncla zetalu koknirssi, to staE thrce ccks somewhere (3) to live at Ma a:l a u ina kea Selbla. nowadays he livcs at Sefula spec. exp. hu ina ,nihah:o, to abidc. to last der. buino, mainelo, muinelo, buinelo. rel. -inela (inezi) to sit or ait for. caus. -lnisa (ini-size) to cause to sit. to piace on a seat. rec. -inisana (inisani) to stay with one another: Ku inis(ma hande, to live together in peace. int. -lnelela (inelezi) to stay perma-ncnti).

-inama ( inami or -inamela ( inamezi to bend the bods or bow towards. caus. -inamisa (inamisize) to hend the bodv or bos towards. caus. -ln-amisa ( inamisize ) to cause some-one to stoop. inv. -inamuluha (in-amuluhile) to unbend. to lift up one's head after bowing. ref. -iki-namela ( ikinamezi ) or -ikinamena (ikinamezi) to let one's head drop with shame or weariness.

inambao (bo-) n. Luyana. Iion. sxn. tau.

-inda (indiles v.t. to weave reeds (as whell making mats) to wcasc grass (as when prcparing fish traps). der. muindi, muindelo rel. -lndela (indezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -indisa (indisize) to order or to help to ~. in^. -lndulula induluzi) to U11-weave

-indeka (indekile) v.t. to cast a spcil upon someone either to prcvent him fron1 taking action or to get him into trouble. der. muindekelo. -lnduka] (indukile) v.i. to rise earls. to make an earlx start. ref. -lnkin-duka (ikindukile) same meaning.

-induka2 (indukile) s.i. to begin (with reference to the first pangs of childhirth). pass. -indukwa (indu-kilwe) to be feeling the first pangs of childbirth.

-indula (induzi) .t. to turn ovel grass in shallow water in order to catch fish. der. muindu.

-ineela (ineezi) v.i. Sotho. to be devoted to duts. to be self-dedicated

-ineka1 (inekile) v.i. to stand on tiptoe

-ineka2 (inekile) :.i. to bend the body to show that one's stomach is empty. rel. -Inekela (inekezi) to stoop towards. caus. -Inekisa ( in-ekisize) to cause someone to stoop. inv. -Inuka (inukile) to unbend, to lift oneself up.

inge or ike, conj. (possibly derived from the Sotho verb 'ka', to be like), as, like, similar to: Mutang-ana yo u ikeza ike sipulumuki, this lad acts as a mad man; as much as: Mwana yo ni mu lata ike mo ni ita-tela, I love this child as much as I love myself. Before a request 'inge' has the meaning of, please' Inge mu ye ku luna kamuso, please come and see us to-morrow. syn. nangu.

ingilopu (li- or ma) n. Eng. envelop.

inki (li-) n. Eng. ink.

inteni, conj. whereas, since, when in fact: Kiini se mu ni timela kwa mali intei7i kaizeli a ka mu mu file? why do you refuse me any money when in fact you have given my sister some. syn. kanti, isita, mbali, iteni.

inuka (inukile) v.i. to lift up one's head, to sit up. syn. -nanguka rel. -inukela (inukezi) to ~ for a pur-pose: Inukela kwanu ni ku sele mu-/yani mwa meto, lift up your head this way so that I may put some drops in your eyes. cuas. inukisa (inukisize) to cause or to order someone to lift his head.

-inula1 (inuzi) v.t. (1) to raise some-one's head. (2) to take fish out of water. rel. -lnulela (inulezi) to assist somebody in railsing someone's head (sick person).

-inula2 (inuzi) v.i. to foretell some future event (mostly evil). rel. -inu-lela (inulezi) to bring bad luck to someone by mentioning a dream or some possible misfortune, to foretell a misfortune

-inyongamena (inyongamezi) v.i. to sit with the head bent down. fig. to look sad syn. -kocomana.

-inumbwa (bo-) n. kind of tree (Ter-minalia mollis) (used to fence the Litunga's yard). see: imilombwe. syn. mukutunumbwa.

-ionga (iongile) or -ioconga (icong-ile) v.i. to be missing, to disappear (someone or something). rel. -long-ela (iongezi) to ~ in or at: Muhuma wa ka u iongezi mwa simu. my hoe has disappeared in the garden.

ipa (ipile) v.i. to pretend, to assume undue importance, to practise hy-pocrisy. der. muipi, muipo. (see: -fa ref.

-ipanda (ipandile) v.i. to get ready to fight (a bull, etc . .)

-ipea (ipeile) v.t. to eat by oneself: U ipeile lico za hae a nosi. he has eaten alone.

-ipenya (ipenyize) v.i. to fail to ex-plode (cartridge).

-ipia (ipiile) or-ipiya (ipiile) v.t. to lever up a carrying stick with an-other stick in order to relieve the heaviness of a load. der. siipiso.

-ipileza (ipilelize) v.i. Sotho. to appeal, to refer a case to a super-ior authority. der. buipilezo.

-ipoca (ipocize) v.i. to be held back by some slight difficulty: Mu sike mwa ipocafa nto yenyinyani, don't let such a small thing stop you.

-ipononena (Ipononezi) v.i. (1) to take advatage of one's strength or authority to the detriment of weaker persons. (2) to rely on weaker persons for help

-ipukumuna (ipukumuzi) v.i. to flap wings (esp flows.), to shake itself dry (a dog), to shake its mane (a hon)

-isa (isize) v.t. to sent to, to convey. (see: -ya (cuas). to take to

isali, conj. see: haisali.

isamba, conj. since syn. haisali, isali.

Ishee (bo-) n. title given to a com-moner on marrying a woman of the royal family. syn. mukwetunga.

ishi! interj. no, not so: Ishi, hakuc-walo! no, it is not so ! syn. asha, eshe!

-ishonda (ishondile) v.i. to be un-happy. der. mwishondi. rel. -ishon-dela (ishondezi) to be unhappy for a specific reason: U sike ke wa ishondela mutu ra sa ku lati. do not suffer for someone who does not like you.

ishunwa (bo-) n. a short under-skirt. (from: -shuna )

-ishushwata (ishushwatile) v.i. to squat lonely. silently.

-ishuwa (ishuwile) v.i. to humble oneself; to keep oneself from doing wrong.

isibyaeti, n. Luyana. waste matter collected and deposited by flood water.

isilabo (bo-) n. paddler. syn. mufu-luhi,

isilongoti, n. Luyana. an invisible obstruction in water liable to upset canoes.

isi or isini, neg. not like: U n'a luta isi sina) ya saba, he was teaching not like a coward.

isita, conj. whereas, since. when in fact. syn. mbali, inteni.

Isiteketo (bo-) n. a person who can offer protection or refuge.

isunde (bo-) n. a small tree or bush. producing flexible twigs used in building huts and in the making of fish traps. (Its small twigs are also used as tooth brushes.)

-isunya (isunyize) v.i. to put oneself forward. to be intrusive. der. mui-sunvakeli.

-itahanela (itahanezi) v.i. to come before the appointed time. to come before others: to leave early to avoid being caught hy heat. rain or nightfall. der. muitahaneli. svn. -ikambaeta.

-italeha (italehile) v.i. to attain pu-berty (first menstrual period) syn. -fulumana.

itekelelwa, Noun taken adverbially in an unknown way: U shwile iteke-lelwa, he died in an unknown way. (from: -tekelela) syn. Iiokamitwele.

-itemuna (itemuzi) v.i. to look back, to look round to. (as: -temuna)

iteni conj. see inteni

-iteteka (itetekile) v.i. to live with no care of what might happen.

-itima (itimile) v.i. to close one's eyes (as in prayer).

-itimula (itimuzi) v.i. to sneeze.

-itinga (itingile) v.i. Luyana. to cling to, to attach oneself to. spec. exp. ku itinga makata, to sit cross-legged. (see: -tinga)

-itiulula (itiuluzi) v.i. to have a feel-ing of loneliness, of nostalgia. der. ndiulu.

-itofola (itofozi) v.i. to sit idly. to sit with the head bent down through illness or hunger.

-itongwela (itongwezi) v.i.to appro-priate, to take to oneself things meant to be shared. syn. -amenena. der. muitongweli, likutongo.

-itulela (itulezi) v.i. to sit by oneself. to do nothing.

itundubowanga (bo-) n. a shrub pro-ducing redish roots commonly used in the composition of African medicines.

-itundumuna (itundumuzi) v.i. to boast, to glory in something: to boast of something, of doing something. syn. -ilundumuna.

itungwe (bo-) n. expert fisherman catching 'lininga' fish in the rapids area.

-itupwela (itupwezi) v.t. to drink heavily. svn. -lvamena. freq. -itup-waela (itupwaezi) to ~ frequently.

-itutumuna (itutumuzi) v.i, (1) to warm oneself (in the sun, near the fire, etc. . .) (2) to enjoy a drink or food which one is not accustomed to.

-itwala (itwezi) v.i. to become preg-nant. (see: -lwala).

lyala, n. Luyana. the city of Nyambe; heaven. syn. Litooma.

-iyamena (iyamezi) or -iyameta (iya-metite) v.i. to drink heavily: U iya-metite bucwala bwa hae a nosi, he has drunk all his beer without sharing any. syn. -ltupwela.

-iyakatwa (iyakatitwe) v.i. (1) to worry, to be anxious: Ni iyakatwa simu ya kakuli ha ni na ku i feza unomwaha, I am anxious about my garden, for I shall not finish hoeing it this year. (2) to have a bad conscience: U iyakatwa ka mulatu w'a ezize, he fears the con-sequences of the wrong he has done. cf. matilikuba.

-ize, perfect tense of verb 'ku li',to say: U ize, he has said or he said. Ku izwe, it has been said, it was said.

-izinika (izinikile) v.i. Toka-Leya. to be proud of oneself. der. buiziniko.

-izukunya (izukunyize) v.i. to rinse one's mouth, to brush one's teeth.

<div>J

J. j. pronounced as in English. It only occurs as the first letter of a word in words of English origin. In -Silozi words it is always preceded by 'n' in nouns, e.g. nja, Njekwa, Njeminwa, etc . . . -

jaji (bo- or li) n. Eng. judge.

jaki (li or ma) n. Eng. jug.

jamu (li-) n. Eng. jam.

jekete (li- or ma) n. Eng. jacket.

jele (li-) n. Eng. gaol, jail. syn. to longo.

joina (joinile) v.t. Eng. (1) to join (planks) (2) to join (army) joko (li- or ma-) n. Eng. yoke (wooden cross-piece for oxen, etc...)

<div>J

K. K. pronounced as in English.

kaa pref. sing. of nouns (class: ka-tu) to which it gives a diminutive meaning: Mukolo, a canoe; kakolo. a small canoe.

ka2 (1) pron. subj. and obj. of nouns vhich have the singular in 'ka' it: Kanja ka matile. the small dog (it) has run away; Ni ka boni. I saw it. (2) rel. pron. subj and obj. which: Kanja ka ka matile, the small dog which has ran away; Kanja ka ni boni ki ka muXulwan' a ka, the little dog I saw belongs to my elder brother. (3) dem. pron. ( Ist degree) this: kanja ka, this small dog. (4) poss. part. Kanja ka luna, our small dog. (5) pross. pron. Ist pers my: nja ya ka, my dog.

ka3, aux. v. forming the future tense placed between the subject and the verb will or shall: Ni ka sebeza, I shall work (as 'ta')

ka4 (kile) aux. v. can (be able), may Mu ka ya, you may go. The past tense 'kile' means: to happen by chance: Na mu kile mwa mu bona7 did you happen to see him?

ka5, prep. by, with, by means of, ac-cording to: ku zamaya ka mahutu. to travel on foot; ku puma ka tipa, to cut with a knife; ka ndate, ac-cording to my father. ka za ... means: about, concerning: Ha lu sika utwa kale ka za musipili wa hae we have not yet heard about his Journey.

ka6, ideoph. imitating (1) a chopping sound (ku li ka!) (2) a measured beat, as of a pulse iku li ka, ka, ka.) (3) a burst of laughter (ku li ka, ka. ka . . . J sometimes (ku li ke. ke, ke . . .)

ka7 (kile) v.t. to draw water. der. muki, sikiso, mukelo, mukeleli, si-keleliso. rel. -kela (kezi) to ~ for someone U y'o ni kela mezi kwa siliba, go and draw water for me from the well. caus. -kisa (kisize) to order or to help someone to ~. int. -kelela (kelezi) to draw all the water or to draw water all the day long. spec. exp. ku kelela mezi cimo, to draw water early (before it gets too hot). ref. -lkela (ikela (ikezi) to ~ for oneself.

kaale (tuale) n. an opaque condi-tion of the eye causing blindness: cataract

kaba', kabe, kambe, conj. if, used in a conditional clause: Kahe ne mui7 ozi, kahe ne mu boni kalabo. if you had written, you would have re-ceived an answer syn. haiba.

-kaba2 (kabile) v.t. to dress well, to wear ornaments. der. mukabi mukabo, kabisa. rel. -kabela (kabezi) to ~ for someone or something Kini ha u sa kabeli Sunda wena? why don't you dress well for attending church services? caus. -kabisa (kabisize) to provide someone with fine clothes, to adorn, to decorate: Ndu ya mina i kabisizwe hande. your house was been well decorated. rel-kabiseza (kabiselize) to decorate for some-one. rel. -lkabisa, (ikabisize) to adorn oneself.

kabaci (tu-) n. a stitch or acute pain in the chest. (see: lubaci)

kabakala, conj. because of for the reason that, on account of: Ba pa-lezwi ku funduka kabakala pula, they failed to start on their journey because of the rain.

kabakalani? interrog. adv. why? for what cause or reason?

kabakaleo, conj. wherefore, there-fore, for this or that reason.

-kabakana (kabakanile) v.i. to talk pointlessly as a man at his wit's end. fig. to be on the point of death .

kabala1 (tu-) n. a small plain sur-rounded by forest. (dim. of libala).

kabala7 (tu-) n. splinter, chip. (dim. Of libala).

kabama (tu-) n. stick (used by herd-boys) cf. mulamu.

-kabana (kabanile) v.i. to bicker, to quarrel (especially of children while eating). der. Iikaba. rel. -ka-banela (kabanezi) to ~ on account of something caus. -kabanisa (ka-banisize) to provoke or cause bickering

-kabanga (kabangile) or -kabangisa (kabangisize) v.i. to presume, to present as true without proof.

kabanze (tu-) n. scorpion. syn. sowa.

kabayaya (tu.) n. collar-bone (sometimes applies also to breast-bone, sternum).

-kabela (kabezi) v.t. to cut meat or fish into small pieces for cooking der. mukabeli, sikabeliso, mukabe-lelo. rel. -kabelela (kabelezi) to cut for someone. int.

-kabelela ( kabele-lezi) to cut all the meat caus. -ka-belisa (kabelisize) to order or to help someone to ~. -kabekela (kabelezi) v.t. to deprive or to cause someone to suffer loss of property or privileges; to ruin someone's chance of success through sheer jealousy: Ba mu ka-belezi mwan'a hae, they caused the loss of his child (i e. they killed the child). der. mukabeleli, sikabeleti, mukabeleti. syn. -sotisa, -tombola, cf. -yawa. bee. -lkabelela (ikabelezi) to suffer the loss of one's own pro-perty or privileges.

kabelo (li-) n. portion, share; by ex-tension: offering, Church con-tribution. (from: -aba)

kabemba (tu-) n. razor blade. fig. exp. Kabemba mu-ca-habeli. deceit-ful person, someone who acts as a traitor. a dquble-dealer cf. Iikeka.

kabeme (tu-) n. the blade of a hoe when reduced by wear to a very small size. syn. kakuta. cf. misisi.

kabemele (tu-) n. wrathful, ill-na-tured person.

kabesi, conj. were it not: Kabesi mulao kabe batu ba fosa hahulu. were it not for the existence of the law, people would behave very badly.

kabewa (bo-) n. tale-bearer (from: -bewama) syn. mwibeya.

kabindo (tu-) n. small wooden charm worn round the waist or neck. syn. kaoi.

kabindu (tu-) n. Iight beer (in a small quantity): Kacenu mu ni ezeze kabindus kamuso ni nwe. prepare some light beer for me today so that I may drink tomorrow. (from: -bindula ).

kabisa (li-) n. ornament, decorative design. (from: -kaba)

kabololo n. important catch of fish successful hunting. (from: -bolo-meka ).

kabu (tu-) n. steenbok antelope.

kabubo n. renown reputation fame: U ile kabubo ka busholi, he is a notorious thief (from: -bubana) syn. Iibubo.

kabusule (bo-) n. poor indigent person. syn. mubotana njebwe mu-fuzana.

kabuyo (tu-) n. (1) the hollow at the base of the throat. (2) fontanel. (from: -buyela) syn. matofotelo.

kabyacima (tu-) n. Luyana. irritabil-ity. syn. kacimacima.

kacaca (tu-) n. small swift canoe. fig. a young attractive person.

kacaka (tu-) n. kind of rattle con-taining dry seeds.

kacana n. Luyana. a small thing.

kaceka (kacekile) v.t. to put food carelessly on a plate.

kaceka

kacenjela (bo-) n. a person who knows how to foresee trouble and shun it. (from: -cenjela).

kacenu also kaceku or kasheku. adv. today: Kacenu le, this very day: ku zwa kacenu. from this day (forwards).

kacicimbwelo (tu-) n. the lower part of the abdomen.

kacimacima (tu-) n. Luyana irrita-bility. syn. kabyacima.

kaciocio (tu-) n. chicken. syn. kaz-winyani.

kacolanasi (tu-) n. Iittle Grebe or Dabchick (bird)

kafafalo (tu-) n. a fairly long dis-tance: Ku zwa Sefula kuya Muoyo ki kafafalo, from Sefula to M uoyo is a fairly long way syn. kahoho.

kafanelo, n. manner of giving paris-moniously. (from: -fana).

kafasingo (tu-) n. kind of trap used for catching birds by the neck.

kafatamalaba (tu-) n. Seedeater (bird).

kafifi, n. shadow; shade; darkness: ku eza mutu kaffifa . meto, to blind someone (witchcraft).

kafifi-ka-baloi, n. the thick dark-ness preceding dawn lit: when witches return home).

kafolofolo (tu-) n. any kind of small wiid animal in comparison with large on es . cf. kunduyamana. dim. Of folofolo)-

kafufeti (tu-) n.a thin person (from: -fufa) syn. kalyangeti.

kafufu (tu-) n. a small antelope (tsessebe).

kafuko-fuko (tu-) n. Iion-ant (from: -fukula)

kafuku (tu-) n. a well-off, rich person

-kafula (kafuzi) v.t. (slang) to eat kafula (tu-) n. small bow net fish trap. kafulandondo or kafulambi (tu-) n. a game in which children walk on hands with feet up. kafumbi (tu-) n. a place in a stream where water is very deep. cf. kan-dumbwi. kafundifundi (tu-) n. vengeance, re-taliation: Ba mu /wanisize ka kafun-difundi, they fought against him in retaliation . kafmiondo. (tu-) n. a kind of black 'white-ant' too small to be killed with the fist (nondo means fist). kafwicu (tu-) n. a small man. kafwililo (tu-) n. a hand catapult used by children to kill small birds kahoho, n. a rather long distance, a fairly long distance. (from: -hoha) syn. kafafalo.

kai1? adv. interrog. where? where from? where to? Mu ya kai? where are you going?; Ba kai? where are they? Sometimes 'kai' is prefixed by 'ka': U mufumani kakai? where did you find him? kai ni kai, every-where, wherever. kai2, adv. interrog 7 adj. neg. (1) how much, how many? In the singular, how much is usually expressed by bukai or ki bukai? Meaning either: the amount of anything or the price asked for it: Mu bata bukai? how much do you want? Ki bukai? how much do you ask for it? To in-dicate 'the amount OF the verb: -kuma is also used: Lizwai le li kuma kai? what is the amount of salt? (2) In the plural 'kai' is used with rele-vant concords: Likomu zekai? how many cows; Batu ba bakai? how many people? (3) liakai? how many times? (4) adj. neg. not much, a few: likuhu li sikai, a few chickens; ma/i a sikaffela, only a little money.

kainole, n. hatred, a disposition to do harm: Mutu yo u na ni kaii701e mwapilu, this man has an evil dis-position towards others.

kaizeli (li-) n. reciprocal term meaning sister of a man, or brother of a woman.

kajenu, adv. today (also: kasheku, kaceku, kacenu)

-kaka (kakile) v.i. to advance in a row as people fishing with baskets rel. -kakela (kakezi) to ~ in the di-rection of.

kakala! ideoph. imitating the sound of a fish wrestling to get free after being speared

kakala-kakala! interj. imitating the sound made by two persons when quarrelling or wrestling; also the struggle of someone unsuccess-fully trying to do a piece of work.

kakalezo (li-) n. Sotho. summary (from: -akaleza) estimate

kakamala (kakamalile or kakamezi) v.i. to be struck dumb, to be as-tounded (as by sad news). syn. -ka-kabala, -komoka. caus. -kakama-lisa (kakamalisize) to strike dumb, to astound.

-kakamba ( kakambile) v.i. (1) to move slowly and noiselessly (as a large snake) (2) to come unawares (misfortune) rel. -kakambela (ka-kambezi) (1) to come towards someone. (2) to walk slowly (as a number of people going together to some gathering) caus. -kakam-bisa (kakambisize) to cause people to gather together.

kakanga (tu-) n. person with a large chest and slender waist.

-kakanya (kakanyize) v.t. to sup-pose, to estimate: U bulela ka ku kakanyafela, he only makes a sup-position; Ni kakanya kuli komu ye i ka leka K50; 1 estimate that this cow will fetch K50 der. kakanyo. rel. -kakanyeza (kakanyelize) to give a forecast to someone: to ex-plain, to point out to someone

kakanyo (li-) n. supposition, esti-mation. (from: -kakanya)

-kakata1 (kakatile) v.i. to stammer syn. -kukuma.

-kakata2 (kakatile) v.i. to boil (as water in which some meal has been put in order to make 'buhobe' or small fish to prepare relish). der. sikakata. caus. -kakatisa (kakati-size) to let water boil long enough to make well-cooked 'buhobe'.

-kakata3 (kakatile) v.t. to cane or thrash severely der. mukakati. rel. -kakatela (kakatezi) to ~ for a reason: Ba mu kakatezi busholi bwa hae, they thrashed him for steal-mg also to ~ at or in (a place): Ba mu kakatezi mwa mushitu, they gave him a good thrashing in the bush. caus. -kakatisa (kakatisize) to order or to help someone to ~. rec. -kakatana (kakatani or kaka-tanile) to fight with sticks (especi-ally two people striking each other).

kakata 4 adv. in the very act red-handed. spec exp. Ba mu sweli kakata, they caught him in the very act.

-kakatela (kakatezi) v.i. (1) to adhere to to stick to: Kasapo ka mu kakatezi mwa meno, a small bone has got stuck in his teeth. (2) to sink in mud: Komu i kakatezi mwa sileze, a cow has got stuck in the mud. der. Iukakatela. caus. -ka-katelisa (kakatelisize) to cause to ~.

kake (tu-) n. unpleasant body odour. syn. kamwe mumwe kawe kasilangandu .

kakolotwi (tu-) n. Luyana a small shaved head. (from: -kolola)

kakombokombo (tu-) n. part of the umbilical cord attached to a new born child which falls off a few days after his birth.

kakoto or kakotwe (tu-) n. a disease common amongst fowls.

kakoo (tu-) also kakowa (tu-) n. the umbilical cord.

kakotombwe (tu-) n. hartebeest an-telope. fig. a short khaki jacket.

-kakuka (kakukile) v.i. to germi-nate to spring up (seeds).

-kakula (kakuzi) v t. to use a clay pot for the first time. fig. to inau-gurate to dedicate. der. mukako sikakuliso; kakulo. rel. -kakulela (kakulezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -kakulisa (kakulisize) to help to ~.

kakuli conj. because of. for the reason that.

kakulo (likakulo) n. inauguration. dedication (from:-kakula)

kakulununu (tu-) n. Cape Scops owl .

kakume (tu-) n. kind of tarantula spider whose bite is said to be deadly cf: sibubi.

kakundukundu (tu-) n. whirlwind. fig. tale-bearer spreading gossip with extreme rapidity.

kakusasa or kakusasana, adv. in the morning, this morning.

kakuta (tu-) n. small hoe blade worn down to a very small size. syn. kabeme. cf. misisi.

kakuti, n. silentness, absence of news .

-kakutula (kakutuzi) v.t. to pull at someone's closed arms or hands (especially when separating oppo-nents in a fight)

kakuwa (tu-) n. short cry or shout to attract attention: Ni utwile kakuwa ka mutufa likamba, I heard a man giving a shout on the river bank. (from: -kuwa).

kakwaci (tu-) n. (1) catch: Ku na ni kakwacifa palofa, there is a catch in this problem. (2) fix, embarras-sment, hardship: U mwa kakwaci, he is in a fix: U zwile mwa kakwaci he is out of trouble (from -kwa cisa ).

kakwasha (bokakwasha) n. Iiar, someone who does not keep a promise. (from: kwasheka).

kala1 (kalile) v.t. to begin, to start: Silimo si kala ka kweli ya Sope, the year begins in January; Ni na ni ku kala musebezi ka la Mubulo, I have to start work on Monday. spec exp: ku kala mutu mulimu, to pick a quarrel with someone. der. mukali, makaleko. syn. -tateka. rel. -kalela (kalezi) to start from, in, or at caus. kalisa (kalisize) to order or to help someone to begin. int. -kalelela (kalelezi) to begin all to gether: Mu kalelele hamoho ha mu opela, start together when you sing

-kala2 (kalile) v.i. to subside, to get low, to dry up (as flood water or wells and streams during the dry season): Se ku kalile mwa libala, it is already dry in the plain. rel. -kalela (kalezi) to dry up to the last drop spec. exp. Pula i ni kalezifa mubili, I am now completely dry lit the rain completely dried up from my body) caus. -kalisa (kali-size) to cause water to dry up.

-kala3 (kalile) v.i. to cease raining: Pula i kalile, the rain has stopped -kalaba (kalabile) v.i. Luyana. to crawl, to go on all fours (as a small child). syn. -hohoba.

kalabo (likalabo) n. answer, reply. (from: -alaba ).

kalafo (likalafo) n. treatment given to a sick person (from: -alafa)

kalafu (likalafu) n. spade, shovel. syn. focolo.

-kalahalelwa (kalahalezwi) v.i. (pas-sive form with active meaning) (I ) to desire ardently, to long for, to crave after: Ni kalahalezwi ku mu bona, I have an ardent desire to see him. (2) to be bent on torment-ing someone without reason syn. -tukufalelwa.

kalaka (tu-) n. small membrane under the tongue of some babies or dogs. (This membrane prevents them from crying or barking.)

-kalakasha (kalakashize) v.t. to try hard to do something, but without success: Ni li ka kolakasha ku kfu-lula, kwa pala, however hard I try, this door won't unlock.

kalakato (tu-) n. Luyana sclak' epig-lottis, uvula syn. Iilakato.

kalaki (likalaki) n. Eng. a four-wheel carriage drawn by horses or oxen.

-kalala (kalalile) v.t. to scatter seeds (especially rice). rel. -kalalela (kalalezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -kalalisa (kalalisize) to order or to help someone to ~. int. -kalalelela (kalalelezi) to finish scattering seed over the whole garden.

-kalama (kalami or kalamile) v.t. to challenge a stronger and wiser person with a view to overcoming him: Ki sitoto, u kalami ya tata; he is a fool for he challenged a man too strong for him red. -kalama-kalama (kalama-kalami) to ~ again and again.

-kalameza (kalamelize) v.t. Sotho (1) to push, to press forward (2) to bring near. rel. -kalameleza (kala-melelize) to bring towards: Mu ka-lameleze mwanana yo kwanu, bring this child near to me. syn. -sute-leza.

kalana (likalana) or kalani (lika-lani) n. small table-like structure made of sticks. By extension: plat-form, bridge

-kalanga (kalangile) v.t. to dig out roots of the 'mutuya' tree in order to make bark string. (see: ma-shandi). fig. to investigate in a roundabout way rel. -kalangela (kalangezi) to ~ for someone caus. -kalangisa (kalangisize) to order or to help to ~ ref -ikalang-ela (ikalangezi) to ~ for oneself.

-kalata1 (kalatile) v.i. Eng. to play cards. der. Iikalata. rel. -kalatela (kalatezi) to ~ in or at (a place) caus. -kalatisa (kalatisize) to ~ with someone

-kalata2 (kalatile) v.i. to sound (the 'maoma' drums).

-kalatama (kalatami) v.t. to jostle people about, to get rough (especi-ally with one's elders).

-kalauka ( kalaukile) v.i. (1) to sound loudly ('maoma' drums). (2) to speak loudly (as someone in anger). der. makalai.

kale (1) adv. formerly long ago of old. (2) ad. ya kale (or with rele-vant concord): old ancient worn out, obsolete. spec. exp. ki kale . . . already a while ago: Ki kale bafita. they arrived a while ago they are already here.

kalenyana adv. some little time ago.

-kalelwa (kalezwi) v.i. to be dis-tressed. der.n alelwa. ref. -lkalelwa (ikalezwi) to cause one's own anguish .

kalembeshwa (tu-) n. flattery fawn-ing: Mutu wa kalembeshwa, one who flatters to gain favour or to deceive.

kalemeno (tu-) n. a recurring weak-ness or failing a besetting sin: Mutu yomunde h'a tokwi kalemeno, even a good man has his weak point .

kalenalena, n. arrogance, manner of giving orders like a chief and make people obey. (from: -lena).

kalengelenge n. the intense heat of the sun early in the afternoon or after a heavy rain. syn. silenge-lenge.

kali (likali) n. grass pad used by women for carrying loads on the head.

kalifo (likalifo) n. indignation wrath violent anger. (from: -halifa )

-kaliketa (kaliketite) v.t. to try hard to try again and again to continue in any course: Ni li ka ka-liketa sikwalo si pala ku kwaluha. hard as I am trying this door fails to unlock. cf. -nyanyiliketa. caus. -kaliketisa (kaliketisize) to cause someone to ~.

kalilabule n. disturbance confu-sion disorder trouble riot pan- demonium (from: -labula) syn. mu-filifili.

kalili (tu-) n. infirmity: Mutu yo ki wa kalili kamita, this person is always laid up. (see: bulili).

kaliloze (tu-) n. kind of imitation gun used in witchcraft. syn. Iipaku-muna.

-kalima ( kalimile) v.t. (1) to borrow; (2) to lend: Ni kalimile ma/i ku bo muluti, I borrowed money from the teacher; Ba ni ka-limile likwacha ze peli, he has lent me two kwacha. der. mukalimi mukalimelo. cf. -kolota, -kolotisa. rel. -kalimela (kalimezi) (1) to borrow from someone (2) to lend to someone. caus. -kalimisa (kali-misize) to cause to borrow or to lend. rec. -kalimana (kalimani) to borrow from each other: ku kali-mana liapalo, to lend each other clothes. ref. -lkalima (ikalimile) as rec.

kalimba1 (tu-) n. small singing bird (canary family).

kalimba2 (tu-) n. fairly heavy load of grain or meal carried in a bag.

kalimbalimba (tu-) n. a pit latrine. syn. simbuzi.

kalimbuluti (tu-) n. small shrub (the roots of which are used to treat syphilis).

-kalimela (kalimezi) v.t. Sotho to scold to reprimand. der. kalimelo. syn. . -omanya -taseza .

kaloko n. nap short sleep. (see: buloko ).

kalole (tu-) n. flattery undue praise: Mutu yo ki wa kalole, this person is a flatterer. idiom. exp. kalole ka nja ve luttla, dangerous flattery lit. flattery of a dog which bites).

kalombamano ( bo- ) n. Mbunda. person showing his cleverness in begging for good advice.

kalombe (tu-) n. sodomy.

kalomo-ka-mbeta (tu-) n. Iiar. Iit. a Iying lip).

kalongo (tu-) n. parrot (generic name) fig. a great talker.

kaloyawe (tu-) n. uncultivated place where people used to be buried.

kalufu-ka-luyoyo Luyana. adv. exp. (see: -yoya ).

-kaluka ( kalukile) v.i. (1) to be lust-ful to be driven by appetite. (2) to be hot on the scent (as a dog specially drugged for the chase).

-kalula (kaluzi) v.t. (1) to inspire or cause lustful desires especially in young people. (2) to drug a dog for the chase. (3) to run fast.

kalulo (li-) n. part division frac-tion: Buka ve i na ni likalulo zetalu, this book is divided into three parts. (from: -alula).

-kalulula (kaluluzi) v.t. to help someone in distress. der. mukalu-luli. pass. -kalululwa (kaluluzwi) to be relieved. (see: -kalelwa)

kaluma (tu-) n. pimple light skin-rush.

kalumabaseta (tu-) n. small biting black fly (common on the outskirt of the plain during rainy season). cf. kambulumbulu.

-kalumuka (kalumukile) v.i. to speak angrily with a loud voice. syn. -mboloka. rel. kalumukela (ka-lumukezi) to ~ someone. caus. -kalumukisa (kalumukisize) to cause someone to; to provoke.

kalunguziba (tu-) n. West African tamhourine dove.

Kalutenta N. small shrub the roots of which produce a colouring powder used in tattooing.

kalwati (tu-) n. small hook-shaped knife used by African doctors for bleeding.

-kalya-bantu (bo-) n. Luyana. sor-cerer (from: -Iya) syn. muloi

-kalibe (likalibe) n. girl (from pu-berty to marriage).

kalyelo (tu-) n. Luyana. means of living livelihood. (from: Iya).

-kalyangeti (tu-) n. a thin or lean weak person. (from: Iyanga) syn. kafufasti

-kalyolyo (tu-) n. the urethral pas-sage.

-kama (li-) n. Eng. comb.

-kama2 ( kamile) v.t. (1) to strangle to choke: Munna yo u kamile musal'a hae maabani, this man strangled his wife yesterday. (2) to be too tight for someone: Baki ye ya ni kama, this coat is too tight for me. der. mukami. syn. -nyokola rel. -kamela (kamezi) to strangle for someone in or at (a place). caus. -kamisa (kamisize) to order or to help someone to strangle. rec. -kamana (kamani or kamanile) to strangle each other. ref. as rec.

-kamalala (kamalalile) v.i. to wonder to be astonished. amazed. syn. -komoka makala.

kamale (tu-) n. a kind of grey squir-rel. syn. mbwinji.

kamamiswa adv. very early in the morning. (see: malungasiku):

kamashungu (ho-) N. a clever person who foresees trouble and avoids it (from: shungula).

-kamata (kamatile) v.t. Luyana. to hold firmly to grasp: U sike wa kamata mwanana ka tata, don't hold the child so tightly. syn. swala.

kamba 1 kambe conj. (1) or: mali kamba sico, money or food. (2) whether: Ha ni zibi kamha u ka taha. I don-t know whether he will come. (3) either . . . or neither . . . nor: Mu nife sico karmba mali, give me either food or money. syn. kapa.

-kamba2 (kambile) v.i. to clap hands. to show one's pleasure or to en-courage a dancer in clapping hands. der. mukambi mukambeli mukambelo. rel. -kambela (kam-bezi) to ~ for someone: ku kam-bela mubini, to clap hands in order to stimulate a dancer. spec. exp. kKu kambela mwalyanjo, to in-struct a girl during her initiation. caus. -kambisa (kambisize) to join people clapping hands.

-kamba3 (kambile) v.i. to become thick (milk etc ...) der. Iikom-bombo. caus. -kambisa (kambisize) to thicken porridge with a little meal. rel. -kambiseza (kambiselize) to thicken porridge for someone.

-kamba 4 (kambile) v.t. (1) to pole a canoe away from any obstruction (rocks sand bank etc .. .) (2) to give someone a push. rel. -kambela (kambezi) to pole a canoe for someone to pole forward. caus.-kambisa (kambisize) to order or to help someone to pole. red. -kamba-kamba (kamba-kambile) to pole a canoe along the edge of a river striking the bank with pad-dles. rec. -kambana (kambani) to push each other to scuffle.

-kambaela (kambaezi) v.i. to be up (the sun between 8 and 9 a.m.).

kambalala,~ n. the gentle heat of the sun in early morning:fa kambalala, in the sunshine; ku ola kambalala. to bask in the sunshine (especially in winter).

-kambalala2 (kambalalile) v.i. to have an acid or a sour taste (as an unripe fruit): Makonde a h'a sika buzwa hande, a kambalala, these bananas are still unripe. they have a sour taste.

kambalamatende (tu-) n. Hooded Finch or Bronze Mamkin. (bird).

-kambama (kambami or kambamile) (1) to climb to go up: Ku kambarma kwa mushitu, to go up to the forest der. bambamo. cf. -pahama. (2) to go into the presence of the chief, to get by special command closer to where the chief sits rel. -kamba-mela (kambamezi) to climb at some particular spot: Ba kamba-mezifa Mongu, they started climb-ing up to Mongu. caus. -kamba-misa (kambamisize) (1) to help someone to go up; to accompany someone. (2) to order someone into the presence of the chief.

kambandula (tu-) n. stick used to torture a person accused of witch-craft. (This torture usually con-sisted in the clamping of the head)

-kambatama (kambatami) v.i. (1) to climb on each other's back (as children at play). (2) to be super-posed (things).

kambe, conj. if; (see: kamba.)

-kambeka (kambekile) v.t. (1) to lift, to place, to set on: Mu kambeke likubo za minafa tafule, place your blankets on the table. cf: -njanga-meka. (2) to add to, to give into the bargain, to give good weight der.^ ambeko. (3) to place a matter before the chief, to make a report to him. rel. -kambekela (kambe-kezi) (1) to place on, to lift for someone: Mu ni kambekele buka ya kafa tafule, place this book on the table for me. (2) to add in favour of someone (3) to take someone to the chief, to place a matter before him on behalf of someone caus. -kambekisa (kambekisize) to order or to help someone to lift anything or place it on something else.

kambendekela (tu-) n. a plateful of 'buhobe' which a woman keeps back for her husband when giving out food to her family

kambeti (tu-) n. shruh growing in most villages (the leaves of which are used to poison fish). cf. situya-tuya.

kambimbi (tu-) n. swallow, swift.

kambimbinyani (tu-) n. Wax-bill.

kambombo (tu-) black insect usually found among dry leaves

kambongolo (tu-) n. donkey. fig. a hard working person. syn. mbong-olo, donki.

kambotwe (tu-) n. White Backed Duck.

kambuka (kambukile) v.i. to become dry (wet soil. wet cloth or paint) Mwa lapa ku kambukile. it is getting dry in the courtyard. syn. -oma. caus. -kambukisa (kambuki-size) to cause to dry. int. -kambu-kelela (kambukelezi) to get thor-oughly dry.

-kambula (kambuzi) v.t. to throw away the hard core of sugar cane or wild fruit after sucking it. der. Ii-kambi. cf. -sota.

kambuli (tu-) n. musical stringed in-strument used by Lubale people.

kambulumbulu (tu-) n. kind of honey-fly. (small black fly which gets into the eyes) cf. kalumaba-seta.

kambundu-mushila (tu-) n. a very small species of 'mbundu' fish.

kambweti (tu-) n. see: kambeti.

kambwinji (tu-) n. a grey squirrel syn. kamale

kambwita-mamina (tu-) n. a very small child (lit one who does not know how to clean his nose)

kamele (likamele) n. Eng. camel.

kamelo (likamelo) n. wooden or enamel pail for milking. syn. si-kundu.

kamembe (tu-) n. young tortoise

kaminyi-minyi noun taken adverbi-ally: strongly, vigorously

kamita, adv & adj. (1) adv. at all times, always, ever: Ni ta mu lata

kamita, I shall always love her; (2) adj. (ya ~ ) common, usual, eter-nal: bupilo bwa kamita, eternal life kamita ni mita, for ever and ever.

kamonabaenda (bo-) n. Luyana. prostitute. (from: -enda).

kamonge (tu-) n. blue duiker.

kamonyimonyi (tu-) n. fire-fly. (from: -monyeha).

kampecu (tu-) n. screen or partition which shelters from observation: Ni mufumani u ipatile k wa kampecu I found him hidden behind the screen.

kampolwe (tu-) n. Namaqua Dove.

kampukwe or kambukwe, n. a cold drizzle: Ki kambukwefela, it is only a cold drizzle.

-kampula (kampuzi) v.t. to cut turf sods with a hoe or spade. rel. -kampulela (kampulezi) to ~ for someone. freq. -kampaula (kam-pauzi) to ~ here and there, now and again. caus. -kampaulisa (kam-paulisize) to order or to help someone to ~.

-kamuha (kamuhile) v.i. to flock somewhere syn. -kamuka.

kamuhelo (li-) n. reception. wel-come, hospitality: Kamita Nawa u na ni kamohelo kwa baenyi, Nawa always has a kind welcome for his guests.

-kamuka (kamukile) v.i. to gather together in great numbers to view something. syn. -kamuha.

kamukana, adv. all, altogether, without any exception: Mu te kwanu kamakana mina come here all of you. syn. kaufela.

kamukole, n. persistent following. persistent pursuit

-kamuna (kamuzi) v.t. Eng. to comb (hair). cf. -shukula.

kamunda (tu-) n. orib antelope.

kamundengule (bo-) n. woman speaking loudly and ceaselessly (from: -ndengula ).

kamungumungu (tu-) n. anything short (as the stump of a pencil or the bobtail of certain dogs).

Kamunu (bo-) n. the first man ac-cording to Lozi legend. By exten-sion: any human being. idiom. Luyana. exp Kamunu ku mu ba ku tongoka, ku mu yumena ku tongoka, be good to him or bad to him a man will always grumble.

kamuso adv. tomorrow; Kamuso-munwi {kamuso o muinwiJ the day after tomorrow; kamusowale. the second day after tomorrow; Ka-musowola, the third day after to-morrow.

kamuyongole (bo-) n. (1) someone who speaks much. (2) someone talked about at length because of his bad behaviour. (from: -yong-ola).

kamwalye (bo-) n. Mbunda. name given to a girl during her initiation. syn. mwalyanjo.

kamwe (tu-) n. unpleasant body smell. syn. mutwe, kake, kasilang-andu

kana1? inter. part. conj. & adj. (1) inter. part: is it so? Kana u min olezi? did he write to you? IF standing alone 'kana' implies a doubt: Kana? is it so? can it be so? (2) conj. (sometimes used instead of kamba, kambe, kapa) either . . . or whether . . . or: Ha lu zibi kana kiyena kana ki usili, we don't know whether it is he or someone else. (3) adj. (often reduplicated): such: bunde bu li kana-kana, such good-ness so great a goodness. In the plural 'kana' means: so many ... (the exact number being shown by raised fingers) batu ba bakana, so many people . ..

kana2 (kanile) v.i. Luyana. to refuse.

-kanama (kanami or kanamile) v.i. to sit or sleep in a recumbent pos-ition fig. to stiffen, to refuse to admit, to gainsay caus. -kanamisa (kanamisize) to force someone into a reclining psoition

kanamukowa (tu-) n. a wart, a skin excrescence on various parts of the body syn. ndolondo, kanamu-lumbe, kandolondo.

kanamulame (tu-) n. the spirit of a dead person sent by witch to harm someone (from:-lameka).

kanamulumbe (tu-) n. as kanamu-kowa.

kanamutendele (tu-) n. bicycle (from: -tendeleka) syn. njinga, mbasikolo.

-kanana (kananile) v.i. to argue, to call in question, to protests, to contradict der. mukanani, kai. syn. -piha. rel. -kananela (kananezi) to argue about, to contend for. caus. -kananisa (kananisize) to cause someone to argue Se si mi kananisa fa taba ye ki sifi? what causes you to argue about this matter?

kanaondo (tu-) n. small round basket with lid (mostly used by woman for trinkets). By. extension any trinket case.

kananga1 (tu-) n. kind of wild honey produced by 'tumbulumbulu' flies kananga2 (bo-) n. (or kananga-mukete, mukete-kananga) so-and-so. somebody (often used in con-versation to avoid naming a person and in correspondence as an anonymous signature): U ye ku bo Kananga, go to so-and-so

-kanatela (kanatezi) v.t. (1) to be persistent in something (especially in clearing up a case) (2) to repeat an action, to keop doing some-thing, to go over something again syn. -tundamena. sp. exp. Kacenu ndonga ya kanatela, today one in jection follows the other! lit. today the needle keeps shooting); Taba i kanatela ku mukete, the evidence keeps pointing to so-and-so.

kanaunu, n. one of the royal drums ( maoma).

kancele (tu-) n. Coqui Francolin (bird) Also called forest partridge

-kandakanda (kandakandile) v.t. Luyana. to waste, to spoil: Mu sike mwa kandakanda mezi, don't waste water. rel. -kandakandela (kanda-kandezi) to ~ someone's thing. caus. -kandakandisa (kandakandi-size) to cause to ~.

kandalya (tu-) n. cassava tuber pounded into meal without first being soaked; bupi bwa kandalya, the meal thus obtained

-kandameka (kandamekile) v.t. (1) to speak firmly to (2) to give sur-prising news or false news: U sike wa kandameka batu za buhata, don't tell people unfounded news syn. -koomeka.

kandanji (tundanji) n. Luvale. a newly circumcised boy

kandao, n. May -kandauka (kandau-kile) or -kandoka ( kandokile) v.i. to be distressed, afflicted with pain or suffering der. makandauko.

-kandeka (kandekile) v.t. to tell, to give an account of, to narrate der. mukandeki, mukandekelo. rel. -kandekela (kandekezi) to tell someone: Mu lu kandekele litaba ze mu utwile, give us an account of what you have heard caus. -kande-kisa (kandekisize) to converse, to hold a conversation with. int. -kan-dekelela (kandekelezi) to tell all the news.

kandela (makandela) n. Eng. candle.

-kandelela (kandelezi) v.i. & v.t. (1) to clap hands (in greeting or to ex-press thanks and consent). (2) to pay respect to: ku kandelela mutu, to pay respect to a person der. si-kandekliso, lukandeleto.

kandolondo (tu-) n. wart, skin ex-crescence syn. kanamukowa, ndo-londo, kanamulumbe.

-kanduka (kandukile) v.i. to move from the edge of the plain to the forest during the flood season. syn. -omboka. rel. -kandukela ( kandu-kezi) to ~ to a certain place

-kandula (kanduzi) v.t. (1) to push off vigorously, to launch (as a canoe from the shore) (2) to knock someone down in wrestling der. ikandulwa. rel. -kandulela (kandu-lezi) to push towards: Mu kandulele mukolo kwa ngala, push the canoe out into the deep

kandumbwi (tu-) n. deep part of a stream where people bathe. (see: -ndumbwikela).

kanenga (tu-) n. demoniacal power of a spirit believed to act under the will of a witchdoctor syn. Iikishi.

kanga (tu-) prefix used to express smaliness or disregard of a person: Kanga Mubita, the little Mubita. cf. Iunga, singa.

kangamba (tu-) n. polecat (kind of skunk) fig. wrathful person syn. nakeli.

-kangana (kangani or kanganile) v.i. (1) to resist, to be stronger than anyone else (in wrestling, witch-craft, etc . . ): Munna yo wa kang-ana hakunaya kona ku mu wisa, this man is very strong, no one can knock him down (2) (something) to be beyond one's strength: butuku bwa hae bwa kangana, his discase is incurable der. Iikangate. syn. -kulauka. caus. -kanganisa (kanganisize) to cause to resist rec. -kangisana ( kangisani or kangi-sanile) to be of equal strength. der. kangisano.

-kangauka (kangaukile) or -kang-oka (kangokile) v.i. to speak an-grily with a loud voice. rel. -kang-aukela (kangaukezi) to ~ to some-one caus. -kangaukisa (kangauki-size) to cause to ~. ref. -ikangaukisa (ikangaukisize) to fly into a rage, to lose one's temper.

-kangela (kangezi) v.i. to frceze, to coagulate; to solidify: mezi a kang-ezi, ice der. Iukango. caus. -kange-lisa (kangelisize) to cause to ~.

kangelengele (tu-) n. hand-bell.

kangisano (li-) n. contest, compe-tition (from:-kangana).

-kanguka (kangukile) v.i. to be thirsty

-kanguka 2 (kangukile) v.i. (drum) to resound properly (after having been exposed to fire)

-kangula1 (kanguzi) v.t. to cause thirst.

-kangula2 (kanguzi) v.t. to make a drum resound properly by expos-ing it to the fire ref. -lkangula (ikanguzi). fig. to be in good health der. buikangulo.

-kangumu (bo-) n. a lonely person without relatives

kanguwe (tunguwe) n. a person who avoids company, who likes to sit by himself

kanguya (tu-) n. a small, frail child; a small, lean calf. syn. nguya, munguya.

kangwende, adv. solitarily, in retire-ment from society: U lata ku ina kangwende, he likes to sit by him-self

kanii (tu-) n. the little finger. idiom. exp. Kanini ha ka supiswi mutu, the little finger is never used to point at somebody

kaniso (likaniso-) n. obstacle (from: -hanisa) syn. tibelo.

kanjeke (tu-) n. dwarf goose, pigmy goose

kanjenji (tu-) n. grass warbler

-kanjimbwa (kanjimbwile) v.t. to stir carelessly. fig. to triffle with, to ir-ritate by small provocations

kanjinja (tu-) n. tuber used to poison fish.

kanjoli (tu-) n. small creak con-nocted with a river

kanjwe' n. healthy constitution: Yena ki wa kanjwe, h'a kula-kuli; he is a person of robust constitution he is never sick. syn. kashwe.

-kanka (kankile) v.t. to cut barbs on fishing spears der. mukanki' bu-kanko' sikankiso.

-kankaula (kankauzi) v.t. to chop meat into small pieces der. mu-kankauli, sikankauliso, mukankau-leb. rel.

-kankaulela (kankaulezi) to ~ for someone, to ~ in a cer-tain place. caus. -kankaulisa (kan-kaulisize) to order or to help someone to ~.

kankolola (tu-) n. a glade or open space sometimes connecting de-pressions in the plain.

kankuni (tu-) n. kind of snake (which eats 'mambongo' fruit) idiom. exp. Wena u kolotezi kan-kuni, I shall see you about this matter again and have it settled once and for all Iit. you have eaten the snake's food and then are in debt to it)

kankuzi (tu-) n. a stout person. syn. nkuzi, sinkuzi, singungwe, nkala-kata.

kano, n. refusal (from: -hana).

kanoni (tu-) n. small type of dog

kanono, n. epilepsy: mutu wa kanono, an epileptic.

-kansela (kansezi) v.t. Eng. to cancel.

-kanta (kantile) v.i. Eng. (1) to kanter, to trot (as a horse) syn. -katuza. (2) to dance (stamping the ground in the Ndebele fashion). (3) to march (as soldiers).

-kanta2 (kantile) v.t. to stamp, to im-press with an official mark: ku kanta maolo, to put a post mark on letters.

-kantela (kantezi) v.t. Eng. to guard, to watch, to keop an eye on. kanti, conj. whereas, when in fact, in that case, then: lulenilEu bulezinitikanti ki buhata, I thought you spoke the truth when in fact it was all lies syn. mbali.

kanumbango, n. Luyana. stratagem intended to trap someone. syn. ka-nyinamukondo.

kanwele (tu-) n. South African red-billed fire finch. (also nakanwele).

-kanya (kanyize) v.i. Sotho to be bright, to shine. syn. -benya. der. kanya. caus. -kanyisa (kanyisize) (1) to cause to shine upon: Mulimu u lu kanyiseze liseli, God, let Thy light shine upon us (2) to cause people to admire one's clothes, etc.... ref. -lkanyisa (ikanyisize) to be conceitod syn. -lkunga. der. buikanyiso.

-kanyaela (kanyaezi) v.i. to walk with care and strength (as a lion).

-kanyakanya (kanyakanyize) v.t. to try hard to push or lift something heavy.

kanyambe (tu-) n. a thin witchdoc-tor cf: sinyambe

-kanyana (kanyanine) v.i. to be stiff (as a body after death). caus. -ka-nyanisa (kanyanisize) fig. to kill lit to cause someone to be stiff.) ka-nyandi (tu-) n. small fishing net fig. a whore; (sometimes applied to a dissolute man) meto a ka-nyandi, mesh of a net. cf. Iituwa.

kanyanyu, n. smartness, quickness in doing things

kanyayambo (bo-) n. Luyana. the person accountable for some mis-deed or offence. syn. muishelula.

kanyezo (ikanyezo) n. apposition, objection, antagonism, contradic-tion. (from: -hanyeza).

kanyikuta (tu-) n. a kind of small toad living in the ground

kanyinamukondo, n. a deceptive trick or stratagem. syn. kanum-bango.

kanyingi (tu-) n. a wasp-waistod person: Mutu yo ki wa kanyEngi, this person has a very slender waist (sometimes applied to some ani-mals, especially lions).

-kanyisa (kanyisize) v.t. to show off. der. muikanyisi, muikanyiso. ref. -ikanyisa (ikanyisize) to praise one-self.

kanyo-ka-mulombwe (tu-) n. a looped knot of the half bow type

hanyumiti (tu-) n. anything small (mostly applied to person): Mwa-nana yo u sa li kanyumiti. this child is still very tiny).

-kaa1 (kaile) v.i. to look someone straight in the eyes: Meto a hae a sabisa h'a li wa ku kaa cwana, his eyes are frightening when he looks straight at you.

-kaa2 (kaile) v.t. to start hocing -gardens at the beginning of the scason der. Iukaa.

-kaa3 (kaile) v.t. to pole well (paddiers).

-kaala (kaalile or kaazi) v.t. (1) to cu. with a hoe or an axe; (2) to cultivate: Haisali a wela ku kula h 'a kanali muhumafafasi, since she fell ill she has not touched the ground with the hoe der. aalwa. freq. kanatala (kanatalile) to ~ repeat-edly. ref. -lkaala ikaalile or ika-azi) to hurt oneself with a hoe.

kaalaaci (tu-) n. kind of mong-oose.

kaangwa (tu-) n. very small ear-then pot, earthen-shell sometimes used in the past to keep bowels inside the peritoneum when stabbed at war.

kanee or kawewe (tu-) n. the slender part of forelegs of quad-rupeds.

kanete, n. stingyness. syn. butimani: Ufana kaete, he gives grudgingly.

kai (likani) n. (mostly used in plural form) verbal contest, dis-pute. (from: -kanana)

-kaoka (kanakile) v.i. to walk boastfully (as one well dressed).

kanombyo (tu-) n. small African piano with metal keys.

kaoti (tu-) n. South African Shikra or banded gosh hawk. fig. a confirmed thief or adulterer.

kaoto (tu) n. severe clasp meant to hurt: Ku bea matu mwa kaoto to encircle and hold someon hurtfully, head lock

-kanuka (kaiukile) v.i. to be well dressed, to wear a good suit

kaumbi (tu) n. cormorant. (see: umbi.

kaoi (tu-) n. a plaited string worn by children round the neck as a charm. syn. kabindo.

kaokola (tu-) n. a small maize cob

kaongolo (tu-) n. creature; in my-thology the expression: Kaongolo-ka-Nyambe, means the 'Litunga'. (also diminutive of luongolo, a small chameleon).

kapa', conj. or, either, whether: Mu bata sEco kapa mali? do you want food or money? Ha ni zibi kapa u ta taha, I don't know whether he will come (see: kamba).

-kapa2 (kapile) v.t. to lap. rel. -kapela (kapezi) to lap someone's drink: Nja i ni kapezi mabisi a ka, the dog has drunk my own milk caus. -kapisa (kapisize) to give a dog some liquid food int. -kapelela (kapekzi) to drink the whole.

-kapaela (kapaezi) v.i. to walk in deep water; to walk in wet clothes

kapai (tu-) n. small cotton blanket syn. Iipai. fig. ignorance. idiom. exp. U sa na ni kapaf fa meto, he is still in darkness (lit: he still has a small blanket before the eyes).

kapa-kapa. ideoph. imitating the sound of small waves moving backwards and forwards.

kapaso (tu-) n. 'Kuta' messenger

kapeleta (tu-) n. pin (household pln).

kapelezo (likapelezo) n. obligation, com pu is ion . coc rcion , constraint (from -hapeleza ).

kapeza-kapeza, adv. quickly: Mu eze kapeza-kapeza, mu feze kapili, do it quickly in order to finish early

kapili, adv. quickly, soon, shortly. Also kapili-pili or kapili-kapili: very quickly, very soon, etc.

kapitao (bo-) n. Afrik. foreman, ganger.

kapokola (tu-) n. soldier: policeman.

kapui (tu-) n. small gourd or cala-bash used in divining.

-kapula (kapuzi) v.t. (1) to prevent someone from continuing in his studies: (2) to dismiss. to expel der. makapulwa, mukapu.

kapuli (tu-) n. small goat. (sce: puli).

kapulusi (li- or ma-) n. Eng. 'couple', a pair of rafters joined to-gether and supporting the roof of a house

kapumba, n. type of cassava

kaputula (tu-) n. pair of shorts fig. a person fond of wearing shorts

-kapwama (kapwami) v.i. to be well off. well provided.

-kaweka (kawekile) v.t. to give ge-nerously, to be open-handed der. makapweka.

kapyololo (tu-) n. whistle (see pyo-lolo).

kasa (tu-) n. small pond or lake (see lisa).

kasaka, adv. in the veldt: Ba ni siyezi mwan'a ka mwa kasaka. they left my child in the veldt syn. nahei.

kasambo (tu-) n. grass bracelet (mostly worn by children).

-kasana (kasani) v.t. to talk non-sense, to speak heedlessly about many things der. mukasani. rel. -kasanela (kasanezi) to ~ to some-one caus. -kasanisa (kasanisize) to cause to ~.

kasapo (tu-) n. small bone fig. strong person

kasela (tu-) n. small fish spear made of plain wire (especially used by children) syn. sishondiso.

kaselenge (tu-) or selenge (li-) n. small tin used as a measure by people who sell beer (from: -sela).

-kasha (kashize) v.t. to push vigo-rously. cf: -sunda. rel. -kasheza (ka-shelize) to ~ for someone or in a certain direction: U kasheze mukolo mwa ngala, push the canoe out into the deep. caus. -kashisa (kashisize) to order or to help someone to ~ req. -kashaka (ka-shakile) to ~ repeatedly rec. -ka-shakana (kashakani) or -kashana (kashani) to ~ each other repeat-edly

kashamiliketi, n. manner of inciting people to fight. (from -shami-liketa ).

kashandula (bokashandula) n. some-one causing petty quarrels, bicker-ing in a village (from -shandula).

kashanga-ngoma (bo-) n. a person who starts a dance before the offi-cial dancer, in order to attract people (from: -shanga) syn. mu-shangi.

kashatu (tu-) n. short distance Ki kashatu fela, it is only a short dis tance. (from: -shatuka).

kashe! interj. look out! wait a bit! spec exp. Kashe mbicani, just a moment please!

kashea (tu-) n. person with a large abdomen and narrow shoulders (especially a woman).

kasheku, adv. today. syn. kacenu, kajenu, kaceku.

kashela (tu-) n. Pied Wagtail (bird) (from: -shela).

kashela-matuta (tu-) n. Wagtail (of the Grass Warbler species) (from: -shela).

kasholondondo ( tu- ) n. small, narrow piece of land syn. musho-londondo.

kasholwa-sholwa (tu-) n. small shal-low pond syn. sisholwa-sholwa.

kashongwa (tu-) n. the pointed piece of wood which projects above the apex of a hut and usually crowned with a pinnacle of plaited grass called 'mutumbwe'.

kashukuma (tu-) n. small creature: Kakomu ka kashukuma, small but fully grown cattle. fig. small woman.

-kashula (kashuzi) v.t. (1) to have ability or skill (in reference to work) (2) to overcome someone der. nashu. cf. -kona. rel. -kashulela (kashulezi) to overcome someone on another's behalf.

kashuto (tu-) n. small fish-hook (from: shuta).

kashwau (tu-) n. rudeness, con-tempt Ku bulela cwalo ki kashwau, it is rude to speak like that. (from -shwaula. syn. Iishwau

kashwe, n. healthy constitution Ki wa kashwe, he is exceptionally sound in body syn. kanjwe.

kasilangandu n. unpleasant body odour

kasulwe (tu-) n. hare, rabbit. fig. a clever cheat, an artful person who misleads others. syn. sanasulwe, shakame, sanondo.

kasumatondo (tu-) n. grudge against someone, lasting ill-will, hatred often due to one's plans being th-warted, everlasting hatred: Ku yema mutu kasumatondo, to hate somebody

kasuntila (tu-) n. a kind of black ant (the sting of which produces a swelling).

kasusu (tu-) n. tuft of hair left on a shaved head. syn. sisumpila, njombi.

-kata1 (katile) v.t. to dig up roots (cassava roots, sweet-potatoes, etc...) der. mukati, sikatiso, muka-telo. rel. -katela (katezi) to dig out for someone. caus. -katisa (kati-size) to order or to help someone to dig. int. -katelela (katelezi) to dig up the lot. ref. -ikatela (ikatezi) to dig up for oneself: Ni sa y'o ika-tela mulyani, I am going to dig up some roots to make medicine

-kata2 (katile) v.t. to strike the ground with a hoe, to make an earthen floor (in a house, etc ) rel. -katela (katezi) to ~ for some-one caus. -katisa (katisize) to order or to help someone to ~ stat. -kateha (katehile) to be even (earthen floor, etc )

kataa, interj. with 'kuli', to be laid up continually as an invalid Mukul a sa li kuli kataa! the patient has been laid up for a long time.

katafuneno (tu-) n. the upper part of the jaw bone regarded as a vital spot (from -tafuna).

-kata-kata (katakatile) v.i. to hesi-tate, to delay: U sike wa kata-kata, u bulelefela: don't hesitate, speak your mind caus. -katakatisa (kata-katisize) to cause someone to ~.

katakinya (tu-) n. Iouse, chikoe (jigger) syn. nda.

katala (tu-) n. African altar made of I sticks on which offerings were made to Nyambe or to ancestors.

-katala (katezi) v.i. to get tired. ; bored. weary: Lo katezi hahulu, we are very tired. der. mukatala. cf.- -tineha. caus. -katalisa ( katalisize) to overtire, to exhaust in a physi-cal sense: Puka i ni katalisEze. walk-ing in the dew has exhausted me Inv. -katuluha (katuluhile) to rest. caus. -katulusa (katulusize) to give rest ref -ikahlusa (ikatulusize) to take a rest.

katala-matunga (bo-) n. explorer (lit. somebody who travelled in many countries and saw many things)

katalo-ka-kubu (tu-) n. black spot on the skin of Africans.

-atama (katami) vi. to lie down (as an invalid in a long drawn out ill-ness)

katamba (tu-) n. small fishing mat made of grass.

katambaminwe, n. a fairly long dis-tance syn. kahobo.

katambi (tu-) n. rubbish pit; pit from where plastering earth is dug.

katamu (tu-) n. kind of protective medicine which, in the past, used So to be taken with the first products of the season (maize, millet, etc. .) (from: -tamuna).

-katana (katani) v.t. to meet, to en-counter, to come upon: Ni katani bo muluti mwa nzila, I met the teacher on the way.

-katanyeza (kabnyelize) v.t. to go out some distance to meet an ex-pected guest. syn. -patoka.

katanafu (tu-) n. the last evacuation of the bowels at the time of death. (from -fa).

katangando (tu-) n. the apex of a; hut seen from the interior.

katangu (tu-) n. (1) a ceremonial or traditional act or gesture strictly observed: Ni itumezi kwa lico za mica, kono ni cite, ni ta watafela ka eza katangu: I thank you for the food, but I have eaten already, I shall just have one or two mouth-fuis to keep the tradition (2) con-straint: Ha ni na katangu ko ni ezize ka ka ta ni tuhelisa mutoho: I did not do any moral wrong or mis-chief which would constrain me from drinking beer.

-kataza (katalize) v.t. to annoy, to trouble, to tire der. mukatazi, katazo, muikatazi, buikatazo. syn. -swenya. rel. -kataleza (katalelize) to offend someone by annoying another: U sike wa ni kataleza mwa-nana, do not annoy my child. stat. -katazeha (katazehile) to be an-noyed, to be troubled fig to be sick: Kacenu ni katazehile hahulu, today I really fecl unwell. rec. -ka-tazana (kahzani or katazanile) to annoy each other. freq. -katazanga to keep on annoying someone. ref. -lkataza (ikatalize) to do one's best. caus. -lkatazisa (ikatazisize) to cause one's own torment: Ku maswe ka ikatazisa musali. bunde ki ka mu leleka fela; it is stupid to worry oneself with home troubles' the best thing is to get a divorce.

katazo (mikatazo) n. annoyance, worry, nuisance, bother. (from: -kataza).

katekisema (tu-) n. Eng. church catechism.

-katela (katezi) v.t. to press down (as meal in a basket, etc)

-kateleha (katelehile) v.i. to look fine. elegant der. kateleho. syn. -buheha.

kateleho, n. elegance, beauty, grace. (from: -kateleha).

-katelwa (katezwi) v.t. to like some-thing, to be pleased with someone or something: Mukwa wa hae ki amunde, na u katelwa: I like his manners, they are pleasant

katendele (tu-) n. skull, human skull (Rarely applied to animals.)

katengo (tu-) n. ( l ) gathering of people sitting in a circle; (2) a council of appointed representa-tives mecting once a year cf. Ii-tengo.

katengunyana (tu-) n. pipit (bird) gen. n.

katete (tu-) n. warbler. Ben.n.

kateya, n. maize pounded before being completely soaked.

katewamilonga, n. Mbunda. name given to someone who keeps him-self out of troubles (from: -tewa).

-katisa (katisize) v.t. to please, to give pleasure (from -katwa); syn. -tabisa.

katiso1 (likatiso) n. printing; katiso ya libuka. printing works (from: -hatisa ).

katiso2 (likatiso) n. braiding (especi-ally on women skirts). (from: -hatisa).

katilotilo (tu-) n. engraving on wood made with a red hot-point; (hece, a written letter) (from: -tail) syn. Iiwati.

katimba (tu-) n. kind of small ante-lope common in Lupani country. dim. of timba).

katofotelo (tu-) n. fontanel. (from: -tofota ).

katondo1 (tu-) n. kind of long grass used in making fish traps or as thatch

katondo2 (tu-) n. Luyana. small stick or tree dim. of sitondo)

katongo-kaishangwe. Luyana exp. ground left by ancestors. syn. li-tongo).

katowati (tu-) n. Luyana. small par-ticle of anything which gets in the eye; a mote. fig. complaint: Ha ni na katowati ka mulen'a ka, I have not the least complaint regarding my master

katubaminzi (bo-) n. woman de-stroying village life by her bad be-haviour (from: -tuba).

-katuka (katukile) v.i. to stand up and go: Lena h'a fumani do ka nwiwa, h'a koni ka katuka kanji; when he finds himself in a place where people are drinking, he has not the will to stand up and go. I

-katula (katuzi) v.t. (bridegroom) to give a sum of money to the girl's parents when taking away his bride from them (This present is given apart from the 'sionda'). der. mukatu. cf. -nanula.

katulo (likatulo) n. judgement, verdict, sentence Taba ye i se I filwe katulo, sentence has already been passed ( from: -atula ).

-katuluha (katuluhile) v.i. to take a rest. (see:-katala)

katumbwa (tu-) n. small round basket with lid in which women keep trinkets; (made of 'makenge' roots) cf: lukumbu.

katuza (katuzize) v.i. to canter (horses, cattle) cf.: -kanta. rel. -ka-tuzeza (katuzelize) to ~ towards caus. -katuzisa (katuzisize) to cause to ~

-katwa1 (katwile) v.t. (1) to value greatly; to enjoy possession of Ni katwa likomu za ka, I value my head of cattle greatly. (2) to be un-willing to give, or part with: Ni katwa kufana kubo ya ka, I am un-willing to give away my blanket rel. -katelwa (katezwi ) (1) to be pleased with, to rejoice in (2) to withhold something from some-one Na ha ni katelwi mute sico, I do not withhold food from anyone. caus. -katisa (katisize) to give pleasure (see -katisa). stat: -kate- leha (katelehike) to be pleasing, fine, elogant

katwa2 (tu-) n. trap, snare: Ba teile tutwa mwa masimu. they have set snares in the gardens.

katwamanzila (bo-) n. person or pack-animal travelling a long time without showing any sign of fa-tigue.

katwele (tu-) n. Sandmartin (bird).

kaufela, adv. all, altogether, en-l tirely: kaufel'a bona, all of them. I syn. kamukana.

kaufi, adv. near, close to; presently, lately: fakaufi ni Mongu, close to Mongu: honafakaufifa, just lately. dim. kauf nyana, very near, very soon. der. bukaufi.

-kauhana (kauhani) v.i. (1) to become separated. to part with; (2) to divorce: Ngete u kauhani ni musal'a hae, so-and-so has di-vorced his wife der. kauhano, kau-hanyo rel. -kauhanela (kauhanezi) to become separated for some reason or at a certain place caus.-kauhanya (kauhanyize) to cause separation, to disunite, to put asunder int. -kauhanelela (kauha-nelezi) to become separated for good.

kauhano (likauhano) n. separation, parting; divorce (from: -kauhana).

kauhanyo (likauhanyo) n. division; chapter of a book. (from: -kau-hana).

-kauhelwa (kauhezwi) v.i. to be left [ beh ind . syn. siyalela.

-kauka (kaukile) v.i. Luyana. to crack, to split der. kauke! syn. -pazuha, -zeuka.

kauke! interj. truly! (affirming an oath) (from:-kauka)

-kaula1 (kauzi) v.t. to break. to split, to cut through: Likomu li kauzi mihala, the cattle have cut their ropes rel. kaulela (kaulezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -kaulisa (kauli-size) to cause to ~.

-kaula2 (kauzi v.t. to contract a ven-ereal disease called 'mukau'.

-kauleza (kaulelize) v.t. to compel someone to leave, against his will, something which he is enjoying (food, beer, etc . )

kaulula (bo-) n. powerful sorcerer (from: -ululula ).

kaumbu-umbu (tu-) n. shallow fishing pool. syn. sisholwasholwa. kaundwa-undwa, n. twilight, dusk

-kaupa (kaupile) v.t. to separate people quarrelling or fighting; to appease; to mediate. der. mukaupi.

kausu (likausu) n. cotton vest with short sleeves; underwear.

kaututu (tu-) n. Button-quail (bird)

-kauza (kaulize) v.i. to cease rain-ing: Pula i kaulize, the rain has stopped

kawe (tu-) n. unpleasant body odour syn. kamwe, kake, mumwe. kasilangandu

-kayal (kaile) v.t. to tie the hind legs of cattle when milking; to tie grass or purlins in building an enclosure der. mukaiso. rel. -kayela (kayezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -kayisa (kayislze) to order or to help someone to ~.

-kaya2 (kaile) v.t. to mill grain. to grind der. sikayo, mukaiwa. rel. -kayela (kayezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -kayisa (kayisize) to order or to help someone to ~. int. -kaye-lela (kayelezi) to grind the lot

-kaya3 (kaile) v.t. to make scarifica-tions on a corpse to make sure that the deceased will not leave his death unavenged. der. mukayo.

kayama (bo-) n. cheat, decciver, liar, crook, twister. syn. mupumi.

-kayamana (kayamani) v.i. to be in difficulty, in danger, in trouble of any kind. der. Iikayamana. syn. - ziyeleha.

kayatwa (tu-) n. temporary shelter made of mats (put up by herdboys and paddiers in open country).

-kayeka (kayekile) v.t. to give very generously an unexpected gift to someone.

kayeye, n. Luyana. undue haste in speakmg or doing things. (from: -yeyema )

kayola-maundu (bo-) n. another name for the 'isunde' tree (which mainly grows in old forest gar-dens) (from:-yola)

kayongo (tu-) n. small bin or storing hut, small granary. fig. gizzard of a bird.

kayowe (tu-) n. dance performed by Manyengo men

kayoya-ndambo, n. Luyana noun taken adverbially used in the ex-pression: Lu pEla kayoya-nadambo, we subsist because we know how to make the best use of our soil. (from: -yoya).

-kayuka (kayukile) v.i. to get de-tached or broken (as a branch of a tree) mutai u kayukile kwa kota, a branch broke off the tree. fig. to escape, to get through: Ni kayukile mwa manyando, I have got through the hardship caus. -kayula (kayuzi) to break, to tear off; to set frce. freq. -kayaula (kayauzi) to break in several places. fig. to speak heediessly.

kayundula (bo-) n. person surpas-sing all others (as a great witch, a great hunter, etc ..) (sce: -yunda).

kayuwe (tu-) n. kind of leguminous plant common in swamps and which causes severe itching when in contact with human skin. (from: -yuwa).

kazalazala (tu-) n. Toka-Leya. weakness, fatigue experienced by some people who cannot go a long way without eating food; dizziness caused by hunger

kazatu, n. (taken adverbially); quickly: Mu eze kazatu, do it quickly, make haste!

kazazi, n. scorching sun dim. of lizazi).

kaze (likaze) n. Eng. domestic cat

kazele (tu-) n. the first milk of a cow after calving c: mutauluswa.

kazemba (bo-) n. someone making a scarch; spy (from: -zemba).

kazingaboya (tu-) n. tuft of hair on the ridge-bone of cattle

kazungula (tu-) n. Toka-Leya. Iarge sausage tree (Kigelia Pinnata) syn. mupobta, mapungupungu.

kel! adv. much, very much: Ha ki mutu kwa bumaswe ki ke! what a plain looking person!

ke2, (subjunctive of auxiliary verb 'ka'), may: A mu ke mu hupule pili, may you think first!

ke3, ideoph. (sce: ka6)

-kecula (kecuzi) v.t. to look at someone surreptitiously. rec. -ke-culana (keculani) to look at each other surreptitiously.

-keela (keezi) v.t. Luyana. to over-look ;to leave without care. der. Iikeela.

-kekelal (kekezi) v.i. Eng. to cackle (a laying hen).

-kekela2 (kekezi) v.t. to plough. der. mukekeli, mukekelisi, sikekele, mu-kekelelo. rel. -kekelela (kekelezi) to ~ for someone caus. -kekelisa (kekelisize) to order or to help someone to ~. int. -kekelelela (ke-kelelezi) to plough the whole garden ref. -lkekelela (ikekelezi) to plough one's own garden.

-kekenya (kekenyize) v.t. to bite syn. -luma.

keketal ( keketile) v.t. (1) to cut bush or trces all over a place: Ba keketile macacani kaufelafa mabita, they have cleared the bush over the graves syn. -lema. (2) to cause pain all over the body by ill-made scarifications caus. -keketisa (ke-ketisize) to order or to help some-one to cut bush

-keketa2 (keketile) or-keketeza (ke-ketelize) v.i. to laugh merrily (as children) to giggle

kekete (li- or ma) n. a large, beauti-ful animal (ox, etc .): Mulena u lurle namani a kekete tuna ya pulu, the Litunga has presented us with a large, beautiful ox.

kekezo (li-) n. increment, increase, supplement Ni kafumana lili kekezo kwa mali a ka? when shall I get an increment in my salary? (From: -ekeza).

-kekuluha (kekuluhile) v.i. to pass by, on the other side, to avoid meeting someone caus. -kekulu-hisa (kekuluhisize) to cause to ~

keleke (li-) n. Afrik. church (build-ing or congregation; also applied to school buildings)

-keleketa (keleketite) v.i. to flow gently or in a small rill as a stream near its source fig. to weep

-kelela (kelezi) v.t. to draw or carry water continuously (as when pre-paring beer) int. of -ka).

-kelepana (kelepani) v.i. to look very old, to look worn out by the infirmities of old age (people or cattle) Musali muXulu yo s'a kele-pani bakenisa matuku. this old woman looks very feeble owing to many illnesses.

keleswa (li-) n. gland; swelling of a gland in the armpit and groin

kelezano (li-) n. mutual advice. (from: -eleza).

kelezo (li-) n. advice, counsel: Ku kupa kelezo, to consult idiom. exp: Kelezo ki mulyani ha i nyefulwi, good advice is a remedy not to be despised

-keluha (keluhile) v.i. (1) to turn away, to leave the path: Mu sike mwa keluha mwa nzila, mu ka lateXa: don't leave the path, for you may get lost (2) to act wrongly, to aberrate: ku keluha mwa niti, to deviate from truth. (3) to menstruate der. mekeluhisi, mu-kelusi. syn. -fapuha, -yabuka. rel. -keluhela (keluhezl) to leave the path at (a place), to deviate to-wards, to branch off:fo u Keluhela mukwakwa, where the road branches off caus: (a) -keluhisa (keluhisize) to cause someone to turn aside; (b) -kelusa (kelusize) to mislead, to guide into error rec. -keluhana (keluhani) to mutually and politely leave the path (speak-ing of two people meeting on the way).

-keluka (kelukile) v.i. to be clear or limpid (as water in a pot before it starts boiling): Buewala bu sa kelu-kile mwa piza, the beer is still as clear as water in the pot.

-kelyeka1 (kelyekile) v.i. to look at fixedly and without being seen. rel. -kelyekela (kelyekezi) to look at someone purposely, without being seen

-kelyeka2 (kelyekile) v.t. to extract salt from the ashes of burnt stalks. der. mukele.

-kelyenga ( kelyengile) v.t. to de-stroy utterly. to exterminate (as people in wars): Silumbu u kelyeng-ile buata mwa ndwa, Silumbu ex-terminated a great many men in his wars rel. -kelyengela (kelyeng-ezi) to destroy in or at (a place). caus. -kelyengisa (kelyengisize) to order or to help someone to de-stroy.

kemelo (li-) n. action of waiting fig. forgiveness. (from -yema).

-kemena (kemezi) v.i. to get very angry. syn. -nyema. caus. -kemukisa (kemukisize) to enrage, to make furious.

-kenal (keni) v.i. to enter, to go in, to penetrate; to attend: Ni mu boni h'a kena mwa ndu, I saw him enter-ing the house- mwan,a ka u kena sikolo, my child is attending school. spec. exp. Ku kena ka ndwa, to invade; U sike wa ni kena mwa hanu, don't interrupt me (lit: do not get into my mouth). der. make-nelo' mukenelo' sikeniso' sikene-lela. rel. -kenela (kenezi) to enter a place, to enter for a purpose caus. -kenisa (kenisize) or -kenya (ke-nyize) ( l ) to cause someone to ~; to take things inside: Mu kenye li-byana mwa ndu, put the luggage in the house, (2) to involve in: Wena u ka lu Kenya mwa ziezi! you will get us into trouble! rel. -kenyeza (ke-nyelize) (1) to take in for a pur-pose. (2) to order or to help some-one to take things inside int. -ke-nelela (kenelezi) to be determined to U. kenelezi ku uzwa lika za batu, he entered with the determination of stealing people's belongings. rec. -kenelana mwa mandu (kene-lani) to commit adultery with each other's wife

-kena2 (kenile) v.l. (1) to be clean, pure (mostly used with past tense): mukeke o kenile, a clean plate; mezi a kenile, pure water. (2) to be holy: Moya o kenile, the Holy Spirit. der. nalikena. caus. -kenisa (kenisize) (1) to make clean, to cleanse: Mu y'o kenisa hande liapalo za mina, go and wash your clothes well. (2) to make holy, to sanctify. (cf.: -twe-tula).

-kenda (kendile) v.t. to disdain, to treat with contempt der. mukendi' mukendwa, lukendende. syn. -nyenya. rel. -kendela (kendezi) to show contempt by giving someone a thing of no value: U ni kendezi sikubo sa kale, he insulted me with a gift of a worn-out blanket caus. -kendisa (kendisize) te keep back food from a guest on the assump-tion that it is unsuitable: Mu sike mwa kendisa mutu lico za canga, do not deprive someone of food which he is accustomed to eat.

-kendauka (kendaukile) or-kendoka (kendokile) v.t. to nag, to con-stantly reproach someone

kengama (kengami or kengamile) to lean or lie on one side: Mwanana yo u lata hahulu ku kengama kwa tuko a mahe, this child is fond of Iying near his mother der. mu-kengami' mukengameni. rel. -keng-amena (kengamezi) to lean or lie by U kengamezi kwa mulilo, he is Iying by the fire.

-kengeka (kengekile) v.t. to put something near the fire, to roast by the fire (green mealies, etc ) (2) to paddle along the river bank: Mu kengeke mukolo kwa munanga, keep the canoe near the river bank rel. -kengekela (kengekezi) to put green mealies near the fire for someone

-kengela (kengezi) v.i. to think, to consider thoughtfully: Ku kengela mwa pi/u, to revolve in the mind der. engeti.

kenya, n. wild creeper producing rubber cf. Iumbongo.

-kenyuna (kenyuzl) v.t. to wound, to leave scars on someone. der. sike-nyu.

kepesi (li-) or kepisi (li-) n. Eng. kepi, peaked cap.

-keshebisa (keshebisize) v.t. to neg-lect, to do carelessly: Mu sike mwa keshebisa musebezi, don't scamp your work. der. Iikesha.

-keta1 (kettle) v.t. (1) to choose, to select, to vote, to take one thing in preference to another: U kettle hembe yende mwa sintolo, he has chosen a nice shirt in the store. (2) to set apart (as the tribute which formerly was brought to the 'li-tunga ! der. muketi' muketisi' Iiketo' liketiso' muketelo' ketululo' buiketo. rel. -ketela (ketezi) (1) to choose for someone: U ni ketele olonji yende, choose a sweet orange for me. (2) to set apart for, to consecrate to: ka ketela Mulimu, to consecrate to God pass, -ke-telwa (ketezwi) to be consecrated to caus. -ketisa (ketisize) (1) to order or to help someone to choose. (2) to make someone pay tribute to the 'Litunga'. stat. rec -ketahana (ketahani or ketahanile) to appear different from others: Likomu za ka pi Anile, za ketahana ka za hao; my cattle are fat, so they are differentiated from yours inv. -ketulula (ketuluzi) to discrimi-nate, to select from others. ref. -iketa (iketile) (1) to be in good health, to be comfortable. (2) to work without haste, leisurely (3) to separate oneself from others, to set oneself apart

keta2 (1i-) n. shell; any shell or part of it used to scrape pots and pans.

ketalizoho, adj. five: bate ba ketali-zoho, five people; mafyelo a ketali-zoho, five brooms; linyunywani li (or ze) ketalizoho, five birds.

ketiso (hi-) n. voting. (from: -keta).

keto (li-) n. choice. (from: -keta).

-ketuha (ketuhile) or-ketuka (ketu-kile) v.i. to be notched, slightly broken at the rim: Pizaya ka i ketu-hile kwa milomo, my clay pot is broken at the rim der. siketu. syn.-monkoka. cf. -shema

-ketuka (ketukile) v.t. to wonder at, to dread, to regard with terror: Mwan'a ka ba mu ketukile, they wondered at my child. der. muketu. rel. -ketukela (ketukezi) to offend someone by wondering at (a child, etc . . ): U nifoselize ka ka ni ketukela mwan'a ka, he offended me by unduly wondering at my child

-ketula (ketuzi) v.t. to break slightly; to break asunder. syn.-monkola. fig. to show one's dissat-isfaction by strong words. syn. -longola. rel. -ketulela (ketulezi) to break off for someone: Ketulela munyan'a Tao kwa mwanSa, break off a piece of cassava for your brother fig to speak strongly to someone. caus. -ketulisa (ketulisize) to cause to ~ freq. -ketaula (ke-tauzi) to keep on breaking off, taking off etc . Mu sike mwa ke-taula makonde a sika buzwa, do not keep on taking off raw bananas from the bunch rel. -ketaulela (ke-taulezi) fig. to use strong words when speaking to someone. ref. i-ketulela (iketukezi) to take for one-self a part of a whole (speaking of many): Mu iketulele mwanSa ni ba bawi, share this cassava root with others.

ketululo (li-) n. discrimination (as applied to race relations) (from: -keta) syn. luketululo.

-keuba (keubile) v.i. to show off (in order to attract attention). der. sikeu. syn. -nyauba. rel. -keubela (keubezi) to show off in order to attract someone's attention: U side wa ni keubela, don't show off to me. caus. -keubisa (keubisize) to make a show (mostly of one's clothes)

-keukela (keukezi) v.t. to cast an eye or a glance upon: Zazi la ka mi keukela ka meto mu shwile! the day he casts an eye on you, you will be done for!

-keyala (keyalile) v.i. lo sit silently: Ba keyalilefela, ha ba buleli, they are just sitting silently.

-keyala2 ( keyalile) v.i. Eng. to write the address on a letter rel. -keya-lela (keyalezi) to ~ for someone sce keyala).

keyala3 (li-) n. Eng. (care of) postal address. (from: -keyala).

keye! (ako . . ~) expression used when proposing and answering riddles (lit: there is comes . . let it come!)

kezahalo (Ii-) n. event, occurrence, happening, incident (from:-eza).

kezo (li-) n. deed, act, exploit: Kezo yende, a good deed; likezo za Baa-postola, the Acts of the Apostles. (from: -eza).

kil prep. by (agent): Ni lumilwe ki Mulena, I have been sent by the Li-tunga.

ki2 v. particle: it is (used when the predicate is a noun, a pronoun or an adverb): Ki mutu. it is a person; Ki mina, it is you: Ki hande. well done !

kii (li-) n. Eng. key syn. sinotolo.

-kikita (kikitile) v.t. to spear a number of people (as in war, or cattle at a funeral): Ba kikitile likomu zeatafa life la ndat'a bona, they killed a lot of cattle on the death of their father.

-kilita (kilitile) v.i. to walk with energy and rapidity. rel. -kilitela (kilitezi) to ~ in a certain direc-tion. caus. -kilitisa (kilitisize) to cause to ~.

kima, adj. thick, stout: mute yomu-kima, a stout person; makonde amakima, thick bananas.

-kinita (kinitile) v.t. Eng. to knit der. mukiniti' mukinito' mukinitelo' sikinitiso. rel. -kinitela (kinitezi) to ~ for someone caus. -kinitisa (ki-nitisize) to order or to help to ~. ref. -lkinitela (ikinitezi) to ~ for oneself.

kii? adv. interrog. what is it? why?: Kii se mu bata? what are you looking for? Kii ha mu bulela swab? why do you say that?

-kipweka (kipwekile) v.t. to stab, to spear. syn: -taba, -kita.

-kisifala (kisifezi) (kisimezi) v.i. Sotho. to lie low (land. especially swamps) der. sikisi.

-kita (kitile) v.t. to stab, to spear: U kitile mute ka lilumo, he stabbed someone with a spear. rel. -kitela (kitezi) to ~ for someone; to stab in or at (a place). caus. -kitisa (kiti-size) to order or to help someone to ~. freq. -kitaka (kitakile) to ~ repeatedly syn. -taba,-kipweka.

-kitibana (kitibani) v.i. to die sud-denly without any sign of illness rel. -kitibanyeza (kitibanyelize) to kill on someone's behaU caus. -ki-tibanya (kitibanyize) to kill, to stab to death (cattle, etc . . .).

-kitima (kitimile) v.i. to run. rel. -ki-timela (kitimezi) to run towards caus. -kitimisa (kitimisize) to cause someone to run. syn. -mata.

-kiya (kite) v.t. Eng. to lock der. mukii, mukiiluli, kii, sikiiluliso, mukiilulelo. fig. to puzzle: Ni mu kEile. sikusa sa ka si tibile; I bluffed him, for my English is deep rel. -keyela (kiyezi) to lock in or at (a place); to lock for someone caus. -kiisa (kiisize) to cause to lock inv. -kiulula (kiuluzi) to unlock.

ko, adv. where, there, over there, at some distance: ha ni zibi ko ba ice, I don't know where they have gone; Mu ye ko, go over there.

-koba1 (kobile) v.i. to wink. der. siko-byoti. freq. -kobanga fig. to wait long for someone (especially at night, when people are drowsy) red. -koba-koba (koba-kobile) to have a spasmodic tic of the eyes

-koba2 (kobile) v.t. to pound in a mortar (especially vegetables, cas-sava and tobacco leaves) der. mukobi, svn. -kobola. rel. -kobela (kobezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -kobisa (kobisize) to order or to help someone to ~ red. rel. -koba-kobela (koba-kobezi) to ~ hurriedly for someone

-koba3 (kobile) or -kobisa (kobisize) v.t. to remind someone of a gift when reproving him der. makobo, sikobiso. syn. -komela.

-koba4 (kobile) v.t. to cast a spell l (witchcraft) der. makoba. syn. -loya.

-kobana (kobanile) v.i. to quarrel over food (as children while eating); to be noisy about some-thing, to dispute.

kobe1 (li-) n. barb or prong near the point of a spear lilumo la kobe, a barbed spear

kobe2 (li-) n. (mostly used in plural) f a single grain of boiled maize. idim. exp. ku ca kobe ka muutwa, to live a comfortable life. (lit: to eat maize grains with a thorn)

-kobeka (kobekile) v.i. to look side-ways (an approved mark of mo-desty on the part of newly-initi-ated girls and young brides).

-kobeta (kobetile) v.t. to beckon, to make signs with the hand. rel. -ko-betela (kobetezi) to ~ on behalf of someone freq. -kobaeta (kobaetile) v.t. to steer a canoe, pedal a bi-cycle der. mukoboci, mukoboco, mukobocelo. rel. -kobocela (kobo-cezi) to ~ in the direction of caus. -kobocisa (kobocisize) to order or to help someone to ~.

-kobola1 (kobozi) v.t. to pound veg- etables, cassava, tobacco leaves der. mukoboli. syn. -koba. rel. -ko-bolela (kobolezi) to ~ for some-one, to ~ in or at (a place). fig to hit on someone's behalf caus. -ko-bolisa (kobolisize) to order or to help someone to ~ fig to hit someone on the head with a stick freq. -kobaula (kobauzi) fig. to hit repeatedly caus. -kobaulisa(kobau-lisize) fig. to cause or to help someone to keep hitting

-kobola2 (kobozi) v.i. to gallop

-kobya (kobile) v.i. see: -koba.'

-kocoka (kocokile) v.i. to be well-shaped (with reference to the nape of one's neck: Mutu yo u kosokile hande toho, this person has a well-shaped nape! der. Iikocokile.

-kocomana (kocomanine) v.i. to sit with the head bent down fig. to be sad syn. -inyongamena.

kocoo! kocoo! ideoph. referring to the sound made by ivory bracelets when moving on the arms

-kocowela (kocowezi) v.i. to be hanging down (maize ears kept for sced) der. sikotowela or sikocelela.

kofi (li-) n. Eng. coffee

kohano (li-) n. contest tug-of-war (from: -hoha) spec. exp. kohano ya misifa, cramp

-koka1 (kokile) v.t. Luyana to pull der. mukokeli, sikola, likoka, makoka. syn. -hoha. fig. to dis-agree.

-koka2 (kokile) v.i. to grow very slowly: Mwanana yo wa koka, this child grows slowly caus. -kokisa (kokiske) to hinder the growth of pass -kokiswa (kokisizwe) to be kept behind, or hindered by Mwa-nana vo u kokiswa ki ku sa ca hande this child is hindered by mainu-trition

-kokala (kokalile) v.i. Luyana. to creep, to crawl der. sakokala. syn. -hohoba.

koko', n. harmful thing; dangerous persorl: Munna yo, u mu sabe ki koko, beware of that man, for he may harm you

koko2 ! interj. no, far from it ! Ni li ka mu kupa, ki ko-ko ki kwa sa isi; al-though I askod him repeatodly. he showed no interest

-kokobela (kokobezi) v.i. to de-crease, to diminish, to lessen. der. muikokobezi, buikokobezo. caus. -kokobeza (kokobelize) to bring down, to lessen to diminish, to reduce, to minimize; to humble pass. -kokobezwa (kokobelizwe) to be brought down; to be humbled. ref. -lkokobeza (ikokobelize) to humble oneself.

-kokoka (kokokile) v.i. to be well off, to live comfortably.

-kokolal (kokozi) v.t. Toka-leya. (1) to enjoy life, to be still alive and in good health; to be active; idiom. exp. Lu sa bu kokola (bupElo), we are still enjoying life der. bukoko. (2) to enjoy good grazing, to thrive: Likomu li sa bu kokola (buc-waii, the cattle are still thriving on grass.

-kokola2 (kokozi) v.t. to pull off, to pluck (ground nuts when being harvested, 'mutumo' grass when stripped to make Flsh traps, etc . . ) rel. -kokolela (kokolezi) to ~ forsomeone caus. -kololisa(koko-lisize) to order or to help to ~

kokolo-kokolo, ideoph. (ku eza ~ ) to discuss violently, to quarrel: Ku maswe batu ba bahulu ku ezanga kokolo-kokolofa lika ze sina ruso, it is ridiculous for mature people to quarrel about matters of no impor-tance

-kokomba (kokombile) v.i. to flow slowly (flood water).

-kokonyana (kokonyani or kokonya-nine) v.i. to become wrinkled: Hembe ya ka i kokonyani, my shirt has become wrinkled fig. to die: Ni fumani mutu sa kokonyani kale, I found the man already dead. caus. -kokonyanisa (kokonyanisize) to cause to ~.

kokou (li-) n. wildebeest, gnu.

kokoo! interj. not at all. far from it! (sce: ko-ko!).

-kokota (kokotile) v.t. to knock: Ki mai ya kokotafa munyako? who is knocking at the door? der. sikoko-teliso, mukokotelo. syn. -ngongota. fig. to report someone: Ni kayo ku kokota kwa Kuta, I shall report you to the 'Kuta'. rel. -kokotela (koko-tezi) to knock at someone's door; to hammer, to drive a nail; to cru-cify

kokota (li-) n. a full grown person, (usually over normal size); a strong person, a tower of strength: Kalima ki kokota ya munna, Kalima is a very stout and strong man. syn. sikokota' ncelule.

-kokotoka (kokotokile) v.i. to get up by shecr strength of will: Mukuli wa luna sa kona ku kokotoka fa mumbeta, our patient is now able to get up, but by an effort of will. syn. -lkokoteza. kokuwi' adv. somewhere; in nega-tive clauses: anywhere: Ha sika ya kokuwi, he didn't go anywhere

kokwani (li-) n. insect Gen n. (mostly applied to ants). (ee: bF kokwani.)

kolal (li-) n. Eng. collar (of a shirt, etc . )

-kola2 (kolile) v.t. to make drunk, to intoxicate: Ki haata bucwala bu kola batu, becr often intoxicates people fig. to wear out, to exhaust: Mutu yo u ni kolile kwa mukumbe-leti, this person has worn me out through constant begging. der. -nkola. pass. -kolwa (kolilwe or kozwi) ( l ) to be satisfied. con-vinced; to trust, to believe: Ni kolwa kuli lika kaufela li Skive, I be-lieve everything is in order; Mets yo na mu kolwa, I trust this person. (2) to be drunk: Ku kolwafa muse-bezi ka maswe, it is bad to be drunk while on duty fig to be exhausted: Ni kozwi ki buloko, I am exhausted by lack of sleep. caus. -kolisa (koli-size) (1) to make someone drink intoxicating beer. (2) fig to punish, to cause someone to repent pass.-kolwisa (kolwisize) fig to convince someone Ma sa lumeli kono ni mu kolwisize, he did not agree but I convinced him. stat. -koleha (kole-hile) to be convinced, repentant. ref. -lkola (ikolile) to enjoy, to de-light in (food, entertainment, etc. . .).

-kola3 (kolile) v.t. to prune, to lop, to cut off branches. syn. -shaba. fig. to deprive someone of his offspr-ing (death) rel. -kolela (kolezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -kolisa (koli-size) to order or to help someone to ~.

-kola4 (kolile) v.i. to become full grown (people, growing things, etc . . .): Ma/aka a tuna s'a kolile, our vegetable marrows have already grown to full size. cf. -buma rel. -kolela (kolezi) to ~ in or at (a place). caus. -kolisa (kolisize) to let things grow unduly; fig to make someone older than his years (as a child given work unsuited to his age)

-kola (kolile) v.t. to eat fruit spit-ting out the stones: ka kola mubula, to eat fruit of the 'mubula' tree

-kolamena (kolamezi) v.i. to get stuck (an object in the branches of a tree) der. olamenyi.

kola6 (oma) (kolile) v.t. to hit the ball in a game somewhat similar to hockey.

kole (li-) n. thong or strap of leather used for fastening cattle yokes

-koleka1 (kolekile) v.t. to hook, to hang up: Mu koleke sihwana kwa lifata, hang up the calabash on a forked pole der. makoleko. rel. -kolekela (kolekezi) to ~ for some-one caus. -kolekisa (kolekisize) to order or to help to ~.

-koleka2 (kolekile) v.t. Eng. to col-ect money, to subscribe, to pay church contributions, etc .. der. koleko.

koleke (li-) n. church offering, church contribution (from: -koleka).

koli (li-) n. stain, blemish, flaw ka okwa koli, to be without stain or defect (physical or moral)

-koloba (kolobile) v.i. to get wet, soaked: Mu sike mwa inafande mu ka koloba, don't stay outside, or you will get wet fig. to be amena-ble, ready to yield, submissive. rel. -kolobela (kolobezi) to ~ in or at (a place). caus. -kolobisa (kolobisize) to cause to ~. ref. -lkolobisa (iko-lobisize) to drench oneself. fig to humiliate each other.

-kolobeza (kolobelize) v.t. to wet, to sprinkle; to baptize. der. kolobezo. pass. -kolobezwa (kolobelizwe) to be baptized rel. kolobeleza (kolo-belelize) to baptise for. caus. -kolo-bisa (kolobislze) to wet, to soak, to moisten. fig. to subdue, to tame, to soften.

kolobezo (li-) n. baptism. (from: -kolobeza).

kolofalo (li-) n. injury. (from:-holo-fala).

kolofazo (li-) n. injury. (from: -holo-faza).

-kolohana (kolohani or kolohanile) v.i. to march in a file. caus. -kola-hanya (kolohanyize) to put in single file, to place in order.

koloi (hi- or ma-) n. ox wagon, scotch cart

-kolokal (kolokile) v.i. to be in a single file der. mukoloko. caus.-kolokisa ( kolokisize) to put in single file.

-koloka2 (kolokile) v.i. Luyana to be bald or with hair shaven off caus. -kolola (kolozi) to shave off some-one's hair der. mukololo.

-kolokosha (kolokoshize) v.t. to make noise (as rodents when gnawing, or people turning over things in search); to rummage: Ki mani ya kolokosha mwa ads? who is rummaging in the house?

-kolokota (kolokotile) v.t. to gnaw bones fig. to fail to bring someone down in wrestling, to jostle some-one without breaking him.

-kolola (kolozi) v.t. to scrape the crust in a cooking pot. der. mako-lola.

-kolomana (kolomani) v.t. to bother someone by continual requests

-kolombisa (kolombisize) v.i. as-ko-lomana.

-kolomona (kolomozi) v.t. to take something out of the closed hand of someone else, to force open a closed hand

-kolonga (kolongile) v.t. (1) to scratch one's ear (2) to scrape what is left in a snuff box. (3) to hollow out by curving (a wooden drum, mortar, etc ) rel. -kolong-ela (kolongezi) to scrape snuff, to hollow out for someone. caus. -ko-longisa (kolongisize) to order or to help someone to hollow out a wooden object

koloni (li-) n. Eng, colon (:) syn. kat-wana.

-kolopa (kolopile) v.t. to scrub, to polish (floor) der. mukolopi, siko- lopo. rel. -kolopela (kolopezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -kolopisa (kolo- pisize) to order or to help to ~.

-kolopana (kolopani) v.i. to quarrel, to come to blows, to grapple. syn. - lupana, -lwana.

-kolota1 (kolotile) v.t. to borrow (money, food, etc . . ): Ni kolotile Mali ka leka sico, I have borrowed some money to buy food. der. mu- koloti, mukolotisi, sikoloti, muko- lotelo, mukolotisezo. rel. -kolotela (kolotezi) to borrow on someone's behalf: Ni kolotezi mwan'a ka maxi a sikolo, I borrowed money to pay my child's school fees. cuas. -kolo- tisa (kolotisize) to lend someone money: Ni kolotisEze Madame Mali, I L. have lent my brother-in-law some L. money rec. -kolotisana (kolotisani | , or kolotisanile) to lend each other | money, etc fig to quarrel, to I fight ref. -lkolotisa (ikolotisize) as rec.

-kolota2 (kolotile) v.i. to boil Piza ya kolota, the pot is boiling -kolotisa (kolotisize) to cook relish (meat, fish)

-kolotola (kolotozi) v.t. (1) to take down, to unhang (2) to gather, to pick, to pluck leaves from plants or vegetables in order to make relish. idiom. exp. Ku kolotola ni ka ka siyezi mwa libako, to help some- one by giving him what we can, even the smallest thing we have (lit: to take out what remains in a tooth)

-kolwa (kozwi) v.i. see -kola2 pass.

komal (li-) n. Eng. comma (,)

koma2 (li-) n. snuff box: koma ya /i- kokoma, a snuff box made out of a wild fruit produced by the 'mu- langu' tree; koma ya sikwakwati, a tin snuff box.

-koma3 (komile) v.t. to prevail, to have the upper hand, to over-come caus. -komisa (komisize) to cause to ~ int. -komeila (kome-lezi) to prevail completely. ref. -ikomisa (ikomisize) to cause some-one to have the upper hand over oneself: Mu sike mwa ikomisa musali. don't let your wife have the upper hand.

komano (Ii-) n. mutual chiding. (from: -omana). a quarrel

komanyo (Ii-) n. reproof, scolding. (from: -omanya).

-komba (kombile) v.i. Luyana to wipe a dish, to clean off food with a finger, to eat remains of food: ku komba mikeke, to wipe dishes. syn. bola. caus. -kombisa (kombisize) to let someone wipe the remains of food from the dishes.

-kombelelal (kombelezi) v.i. to pray to ancestors. syn. -paibla.

-kombelela2 (kombelezi) v.i. to prevail, to take more importance (as a name over another one): Yena u kombelezwi ki libizo leli-maswe. he is more and more known under a bad name.

-kombolal ( kombozi) v.t. to form bricks in a mouid. der. sikombole. -kombola2 (kombozi) or-kombolola (kombolozi) v.t. to clear to dredge (canal, ditch, etc of sand) cf. -tokola. rel-kombololela (kombolo-lezi) to ~ thoroughly for someone caus. -kombololisa ( kombololisize) to order or to help someone to ~ thoroughly: Mubuso u kombololisize maabwa kaufela, the government has ordered all canals to be cleared. of sand.

-kombweka ( kombwekile) v.t. to serve as a steward, to superintend another's affairs (with reference to members of the Litunga's house-hold). der. sikombwa, bukombwa.

-komela (komezi) v.t. to remind someone of a gift when reproving him der. makome. syn. -koba. rel. -komelela (komelezi) to ~ for a reason. rec. -komelana (komelani) to ~ reciprocally. ref. -ikomelisa (ikomelisize) to call for someone's reproof (of onesel0.

-komeza (komelize) v.t. to swallow quickly, to eat greedily

-komoka (komokile) v.t. to wonder at, to be amazed at, to be sur-prised: Nikomokile, I am surprised. der. likomokelo. syn. -makala, -mbwetuka. caus. -komokisa (komoki-size) to cause wonder, to amaze, to surprise ref. (a)-ikomokela (iko-mokezi) rel. to be so amazed that one does not know what to do (b) -ikomokisa (ikomokisize) caus. to cause people to wonder at oneself.

komoki (li-) n. Eng. mug, tea-cup

-komonal (komozi) v.t. to break (bread, etc.) syn. -ketula. rel. -komonela (komonezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -komonisa (komoni-size) to order or to help to ~. freq. -komauna (komauzi) to break in many pieces, to take bits of 'buhobe' from a plate: U sike wa komauna buhobe bwa yomuwi, do not take bits of 'buhobe' from someone else's plate.

-komona2 (komozi) v.t. to smear the forehead, temples or throat of a person with a magic ointment kept in a horn: naka u komona batu mwa mushengo wa hae. the witch-doctor smears people with ointment from his horn

komu (li-) n. cattle (general term in-cluding cow, bull, ox)

konal, emph. pron. sing. (class ka -tu) this (very): Ne ni i beile fa halimu akona katafule kao. I put it on this very table.

-kona2 (konile) v.i. & v.t. to be capa-ble, to be qualified; to have ability or skill, to be able (with reference to work): Ni bata mutu ya kona hande musebezi, l am looking for someone able to do the job well. spec. exp. ku kona batu, to lead people wells to be an efficient leader. cf. -kashula. pass. -konwa ( konilwe) to be overpowered by someone rel. -konela (konezi) to be able to do something for someone, to overpower for someone caus. -konisa (konisize) to enable some-one to help. to assist, to do some-thing. stat. -koneha (konehile) as int-stat below int-stat. -konahala (konahalile) to be feasible (present tense), to be completed (past tense): Musebezi u konahalile, the work has been carried out success-fully; ha ku konahali, it is impossi-ble rec. -konana (konani or kona-nile) to be of equal strength. ref. -konela (ikonezi) to be able to do anything by oneself, to be self-reli-ant.

-konda (kondile) v.i. to be success-ful. prosperous Sa eza kaufela sa konda, whatever he does is suc-cessful caus. -kondisa (kondisize) to make a success of something int. -kondelela (kondelezi) to be thoroughly successful

-kondoka (kondokile) v.i. to return home after an absence Mwan'a hae ki hona a sa zo kondoka, her child has just returned home

-kondola1 (kondozi) v.t. to take a widow back home after her hus-band's death (this is done by her parents-in-law) der. mukondoli.

-kondola2 (kondozi) v.t. to brew beer der. mukondoli. rel. -kondolela (kondolezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -kondolisa (kondolisize) to order or to help someone to ~. ref. -lkondolela (ikondolezi) to ~ for oneself

-kondoloka (kondolokile) v.i. to get better, to recover from a serious iliness, to revive: recuperate: Mukuli wa luna sa kondoloka, our patient is recovering int. -kondolo-kelela (kondolokelezi) to get thor-oughly better.

-koneka (konekile) v.t. to prick and remain fixed in the flesh (as a thorn). fig. to prevent someone from escaping; to trip up some-body

-konga (kongile) v.t. to chase game or fish towards a hunter or a fi-sherman rel. -kongela (kongezi) to ~ for someone or in a certain di-rection: Mu kongele lifolofolo kwanu, chase the game towards me

-kongola (kongozi) v.t. to gather (as a net which collects everything). fig. to summon people to assem-ble. der. mukongoli. rel. -kongolela (kongolezi) to bring people to-gether in view of (some event). kongolo, (See mafuba-kongo-lo.)A4-kongoloka (kongolokile) v i. Eng to congregate, to flock to-gether. der. kongolokeni. rel. -kong-olokela (kongolokezi) to gather in or at (a place)? to assemble for a purpose: Kacenu batu ba kongolo-kezi kwa Kuta, today people have assembled in great numbers at the Kuta caus. -kongolola (kongolozi) to bring people together, to order people to gather together

kongolokeni, n. Eng. congregation. (from: kongoloka)

-kongoshola (kongoshozi) v.t. to col-lect and heap up (scrap-iron, etc. .) syn. -kungushula.

konji conj. but, save, unless, except: Batu kaufela ba kopane konSi banana, let all the people gather together, except children

-konka (konkile) v.i. (1) to swear, to declare on oath (calling God to witness). (2) to be determined: Na-silele u konkile ka feleleza, Nasi-lele's decision is irrevocable. (3) to use profane language: U sike wa konka ba bahulu, don t swear at your elders. der. mukonkelo. syn. shanjala, -tapanya. rel. -konkela (konkezi) to forbid with an oath: Ha u Dana ka sebeza, ni ka ku kon- kela buhobe; if you refuse to work, r I swear that I will not give you buhobe, Ku konkela mutu sico ka maswe, it is very bad to forbid somebody to eat. caus. -konkisa (konkisize) to cause to swear, to charge someone on oath.

kono1, conj. but: Ni munolezi kono ha sika ni alaba, I have written to him, but he has not replied to my letter.

kono2, interj. it is so ! (Not used when speaking to one's elders.)

-konola (konozi) v.t. to scare birds from a garden (especially at seed time), to watch over seeds newly sown der. mukonoli. fig. to wait in vain for someone.

-konya (konyize) v.t. to copulate, to have sexual intercourse, syn. soma

-konyeka (konyekile) v.t. to take excessive care of something for which one is responsible. rel. -ko-nyekela (konyekezi) to ~ for.

koa1 (li-) n. giant kingfisher.

-kona2 (koile) v.t. to remind some-one of a previous warning given in vain.

-koa3 (koile) v.t. Luyana. to follow. rec. -konana (koani) to co-pulate (especially of dogs) syn. -palisa.

-kofiana (koani) v.i. to make noise (as fish eating or jumping when in large numbers) (see: matuti).

-koola (konozi) v.t. to beat bark in order to strip it from a tree. fig. to beat someone. rel. -konolela (koo- lezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -ko-olisa (konolisize) to order or to help someone to ~.

-koola2 (koozi) v.t. to copulate especially of dogs) syn. -palisa, koana.

koomeka (konomekile) v.t; to give express orders or instructions: Ni mu konomekile hahulu, mi mwendi ha na ka libala: I have given him definite orders which I hope he will not forget.

kopa, n. Eng. copper.

-kopama (kopami) v.i. to be bent: kota ye kopami, a bent tree. caus. -kopamisa (kopamisize) to bend.

-kopana (kopani) v.i. to meet, to join, to become united, to congre-gate, to assemble: Batu ba se ba kopani, people are already assem-bled; mu kopane ni Lena, join us. der. kopano, mukopano, makopa-nelo, sikopekope. syn. -puteha. rel. -kopanela (kopanezi) (1) to ~ in or at (a place): Lo ta kopanela mwa Kuta, we shall meet in the Kuta. (2) to meet together for a purpose: Sims ye lo kopanezi ha i sika nuna, the garden we are cultivating to-gether is not fertile. caus. -kopanya (kopanyize) (1) to unite, to join, to bring together, to mix, to com-bine: Mu kopanye bate, bring the people together; Mu kopanye mu-shabati ni samende, mix some sand with the cement. (2) to add num-bers (Arith) red. -kopa-kopana (kopakopani) to be mixed, to as-semble hurriedly; to meet for a short time.

kopano (mikopano) n. party; associ-ation; union: Kopano ki mata, unity is strength. syn. mukopano. (from: -kopana ).

kopi (likopi) n. Eng. exercise book (copy book).

-kopisa (kopisize) v.t. Eng. to copy, to transcribe; to imitate.

kopolo (makopolo) n. Eng. corporal.

kota (likota) n. tree; piece of wood, timber: kora ya mupulanga, blue-gum tree; likota za ka sebelisa, timber- Iikota za ka ova, fire-wood. idiom. exp. Ha kufosi likota, kufosa luna bate, to err is human; the best of men may err at times (lit: mis-takes are not made by trees but by we people).

-kota (kotile) v.i. to copulate (birds).

-kotama (kotami or kotamile) v.t. to be engaged in hoeing a garden (as a group of women working to-gether); to lean forward (as paddl-ers hard at work): Ba u kotami Na-likwanda, they paddle the Nalik-wanda with great force. inv. -kotoka (kotokile) see: -kotoka.

-kotana (kotani) v.t. to mate (birds).

-kotela (kotezi) v.t. to beat away a calf when milking. der. mukoteli. rel. -kotelela (kotelezi) to ~. for someone: Mu to ni kotelela namani come and beat away this calf fob me. caus. -kotelisa (kotelisize) to order or to help someone to ~.

-koteza (kotefize) v.t. to keep a fire burning by pushing logs toward the centre, to stir up a fire. der. mukotezi, mukotelezo. rel. -kote-leza (kotelelize) to ~ for someone. caus. -kotezisa ( kotezisize) to order or to help someone to ~.

koto1 (likoto) n. Sotho. punishment. penalty (from:-ota).

koto2 (likoto) n. knob: madame wa koto, knobkerrie.

koto3 (likoto) n. percussion cap (of muzzle loading gun)

-kotobana (kotobani) v.i. (1) to be bent with age (2) to keep a steady aim in firing a gun.

-kotoka (kotokile) v.i. (inv. of -kotama) to knock off, to cease hoeing and return home to rest, to return home after work Kacenu lo ta kotoka ka twelufu today we shall stop working at 12 noon spec. exp: Mu kotokile spa! good afternoon! (salutation used when people come from work.) caus. -kotokisa (kotokisize) to order people to stop hoeing or working.

-kotokelwa (kotokezwi) v.i. to be late in doing something: Ne lo bata ka to leka sikekele, kono bate ba lo lakile, lo kotokezwi; we wanted to buy the plough, but other people bought it before we came cf: -tompokelwa.

-kotola (kotozi) v.t. to take things away in great quantity Nifumani bishop li kotozi mwanda wa ka, I found that a thief had taken away my cassava.

-kotomona (kotomozi) v.t. to drive cattle away from their grazing place; to frighten fish and force them into a fishing place der. mu-kotomono.

-kowana (kowanile) v.i. to yelp (dog). fig. to growl, to grumble rel. -kowanela (kowanezi) fig. to growl, to grumble in or at (a place). caus. -kowanisa (kowanisize to cause to ~

-koyoka (koyokile) v.i. to fall down (ripe fruit) fig. exp; Pile ya ka i koyokile, I feel like fainting

-koyola (koyozi) v.t. to pluck fruit. syn. -yanga, -yangula, -kulumuna. fig. to kill young people by witch-craft: Baloi ne ba atisanga ka koyola ba banyEnyani, witches were accus-tomed to pluck out young lives. rel. -koyolela (koyolezi) to ~ for someone caus. -koyolisa (koyoli-size) to order or to help someone to ~ int. -koyolelela (koyolelezi) to pluck all the fruit freq. a) -koyauka (koyaukile) to fall one after another (very ripe fruit); b) -koyaula (koyauzi) to ~ again and again; to cause to fall one after an-other Moya u koyauzi Tango za ka, the wind caused all my mang-oes to fall to the ground ref. -ikoyolela (ikoyolezi) to ~ for one-self.

-koywela (koyowezi) v.i. to be hang-ing down (as a cluster of fruit or mealie cobs) der. sikoyowela. caus. -koyowelisa (koyowelisize) to hang, to hook, to suspend

-koza (kozize) v.i. to apply to a foreign ruler for protection; to live in peace der. kozo. caus. -kozisa (kozisize) to welcome a refugee and allow him to settle down. int. -kozeleza (kozelelize) to live perma-nently under a foreign ruler

kozi (likozi) n. danger, peril; acci-dentl serious trouble: Lo mwa kozi yetuna, we are in great danger: ka beya mute mwa kozi, to endanger someone.

kozo, n. peace, quietness, security: Ku pita mwa kozo, to live in peace; ka eza kozo, to make peace, to rec-oncile, to conciliate. (from: -koza). kozwa, adj. black and white (male cattle) (with reference to female cattle: kozwana): polo ye kozwa, a black and white ox.

-kubal (kubile) v.t. to push to elbow, to jostle, to knock. syn. -ngungula, -ngunyuta. cf.: -sunda. caus. -kubisa (kubisize) to give a push, to help someone to push, Mu to lo kubisa kwa rota, come and help us to push the car. rec. -kubana (kubanile) to strike against each other, to collide.

kuba2 (likuba) n. heep of reeds or grass; pile of cut wood syn. fulaha.

-kubama (kubami or kubamile) v.i. to kneel ka kubama ka mawele, to kneel down. rel. -kubamela (kuba mezi) to ~ before someone; to worship caus. -kubamisa (kubaml-size to cause someone to ~

-kubanyana ( kubanyanine) v. i. to be silly, stupid der. sikuba, bukuba.

-kubelal (kubezi) v.t. to knock a cow's udder (as a calf).

-kubela2 (kubezi) v.t. to thatch der. mukubeli, mukubelelo, mukubelo, sikubeliso. rel. -kubelela (kubelezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -kubelisa (kubelisize) to order or to help someone to ~

kubo (likubo) n. (1) skin of an animal used as a covering (2) blanket (wool or cotton) fig. a very old person.

kubu(likubu) n. hippopotamus

-kubuha (kubuhile) v.i. to lose hair, to become bald; to peel off (skin), to moult

-kubukana (kubukani) v.i. to assem-ble (people, cattle or birds); to be heaped ups gathered together. cf: -limbana. rel. -kubukanela (kubuka-nezi) to assemble in, or at (a place), or for a purpose Bate ba kubukanezini fani? why have the people assembled over there?

-kubukanya (kubukanyize) v.t. to gather in large numbers, to heap up, to accumulate rel. -kubuka-nyeza (kubukanyelize) to ~ for someone, in or at (a place) caus. -kubukanyisa (kubukanyisize) to order or to help to ~. Kf. ikubuka-nyeza (kubukanyelize) to store up, to save up, to amass for oneself

-kubulal (kubuzi) v.t. to pluck to peel, to scratch. der. mukubuli. cf: -mweta. rel. -kubulela (kubulezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -kubulisa (ku-bulisize) to order or to help to ~

-kubula2 (kubuzi) v.t. (1) to drive mosquitoes away (2) to remove morning dew from the grass with a stick when walking: Mu kubule puka, banana ba sike ba koloba, remove the dew lest the children get wet

kucwana (likucwana) n. baby hippo

kufa (likufa) n. tick (common with cattle, sheep and dogs)

kuhu (likuhu) n. gen. n. domestic fowl

-kuka (kukile) v.i. to float, to drift, to go with the current der. Iiku-kela. rel. -kukela (kukezi) to ~ in a certain direction caus. -kukisa (kukisize) to cause to ~.

kuka2 (makuka) n. Eng. cook syn. muapei, mutatehi. (from: -kukisa)

-kukisa (kukisize) v.t. Eng. to cook (rare) der. kuka, bukuka.

kuku (bo kuku) n. grandparent Kuku wa hae, his grandfather or grand-mother; the plural of re-spect is commonly used: bo kuku wa Rae, his (or her) grandparent; bo kuku wa Lena, our forefathers

kukueza (kukuelize) v.t. to influ-ence, to induce, to incite, to insti-gate to rouse up (mostly in bad ways): U sike wa kukueza bate ka caela nako i sikaf ta, don t encour-age people to knock off before time der.mukukuezi.syn. -susueza. cf: -shamiliketa.

-kukula (kukuzi) v.t. to give a hair-cut der. mukukuli, sikukuliso, mu-kukulelo. syn. -kuta. rel. -kukulela (kukukezi) to ~ to someone.

-kukulusa (kukulusize) v.t. to cut a small piece of anything rel. -kuku-luseza ( kukuluselize) to ~ for someone: Mu mu kukuluseze kanama kakanyinyanifela, cut only a small piece of meat for him

-kukuma (kukumile) v.t. to stam-mer der. sikukuma. syn. -katata.

-kukumuha (kukumuhile) v.i. to swell, to rise (dough).

-kukuna (kukunile) or -kukunya (kukunyjze) v.t. to knaw, to nibble: ka kukuna disavow to pick a bone.

-kulal (kulile) v.i. to be sick, ill, ailing der. mukuli, mukulisi, muku-lelo, mukulisezo. rel. -kulela (kulezi) to be ill in or at (a place) U kulela kwa spatela, he is laid up in hospital. spec. exp. ka kulela mwahalimu, to feel unwell but not keeping to one's bed. caus. -kulisa (kulisize) (1) to cause someone's illness pass-kuliswa (kulisizwe) ki .. to be made ill by ..(2) to nurse a patient, to give treatment

-kula2 (kusi) v.i. to have one's fill, to be satiated, to be satisfied: Ni kusi I am full, I have had enough fig to be pregnant: ka kula mba ya mwa nahei, to be big with an il-legitimate child. spec. exp. ka kula mba ya mati, to crave for the food eaten by others. caus. -kulisa (kuli-size) (1) to satisfy, to be nourish-ing. (2) to make pregnant: ka kulisa musali mba, to make a woman pregnant, to get a girl into trouble, to put a woman in the family way.

-kula3 (kulile) v.t. to draw out, to pull out (tooth, nail, etc .); to take the handle off a hoe, to pluck fruit; to take to pieces (machin-ery). rel. -kulela (kulezi) to ~ for someone caus. -kulisa (kulisize) to order or to help to ~. stat. -kuleha (kulehile) (1) to be off the handle (axe, hoe, etc ) to be moved out of place: Lihutu ia tafuleya ka li kulehile, a leg of my table has come off (2) to miscarry Mba ya hae i kulehile, she had a miscarri-age fig. to be out of sight (as a person absent for a long time): Ali ka kuleha ohola ha oli, since he left his home last year he has not written spec. exp.: ka kuleha pilu, to be absolutely without strength

kula4 (likula) n. feather head-dress worn by professional dancers.

-kulamba (kulambile) v.i. to be in great numbers (as people fishing together in a fishing pond, or cattle grazing in a field, or wild animals gathered together in a valley, or birds in a depression).

-kulauka (kulaukile) or -kuloka (ku-lokile) v.i. to be famous, to be stronger than others (in any way) syn. -kangana.

-kuleha (kulehile) v.i. see: -kuh3 stat. -kuleka (kulekile) v.t. to carry a load tied to the end of a stick. der. mukuleki, mukulekelo, sikulekelo, makulekelo. rel. -kulekela ( kule-kezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -ku-lekisa (kulekisize) to order or to help to ~. int. -kulekelela (kuleke-lezi) to carry everything.

kuli, conj. that, in order that, so that: Ni bulela kuli u lEyehile, I say that you are late, Mu pakele kuli mu fite ku sa bata, make an early start so that you may arrive in the cool of the day.

Kuliso (likuliso) n. the bringing up or training of a child: kuliso ya bana, children's education. (from: -hula).

kulol (likulo) n. place, spot: A si kulo bunde! what a beautiful place ! Ku-lokulikuwi, on the same spot.

kulo2 n. growth (From: -hula)

kulu (likulu) n. tortoise (commonly found in marshy places).

kulube (likulube) n. pig; kulube ya mwa nahei, wild-pig.

-kulubela (kulubezi) v.t. Luyana. to hope for, to expect: Ha ni koni ku kulubela sika se ni sika bona. I cannot hope for something I have not seen. der. ulubeti. syn. -sepa. caus. -kulubeta (kulubetite) or -ku-lubelisa (kulubelisize) or -kulubeza (kulubelize) to promise. pass. -ku-lubezwa (kulubelizwe) to be promi-sed.

-kulukusha (kulukushize) v.i. (1) to buzz (in the ear) see: mu'a zebe. (2) to make a rattling noise (as mice running about). (3) to shake a door (as someone locked in or out).

kulukutu or lukutu! Ideoph. imita-ting the sound of any heayy object falling down: Mutiyo a u lata wa li lukutufafasi, he threw off his load which fell to the ground with a crash.

-kulula1 (kuluzi) v.t. to untie the load from one's carrying stick. rel. -ku-lulela (kululezi) to untie someone's load. caus. -kululisa (kululisize) to help someone to untie his load

-kulula2 (kuluzi) v.t. to eat green mealies, biting from the cob.

-kulula3 (kuluzi) v.t. to give a full ac-count of events (leaving nothing unsaid): U kuluzi litaba za muspEli wa hae kaufela, he gave a detailed account of his journey.

-kuluma (kulumile) v.i. to rumble (stomach): Mwa mba ya ka kwa kuluma, my stomach is rumbling.

-kulumuka (kulumukile) v.i. to run. syn. -mata. rel. -kulumukela (kulu-mukezi) to run to.

-kulumuna (kulumuzi) v.t. to pluck fruit from a tree: Ba kulumazi li-mango za ka kaujela kwa kota, they have plucked all mangoes from my tree. der. mukulumuni' sikulumu-niso' mukulumunelo. syn. -koyola' -yanga' -yangula. rel. -kulumunela (kulumunezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -kulumunisa (kulumunisize) to order or to help someone to ~. int. -lkulumunela (ikulumunezi) to ~ for oneself

kulungu! inter;. entirely finished, accomplished! syn. mbu!

kulusupani (makulusupani) n. braces supporting trousers.

-kuma1 (kumile v.i. to amount to, to reach a certain size or height: Mwan'a hao u kuma kai? how tall is Kour child? U nifile lizwai le li sa fcumi kokuwi, the salt he gave me does not amount to much. caus. -kumisa (kumisize) to mount or rise to: Mezi a kumisa kai mwa milapo? what height does the water rise to in the depressions?

kuma2 (kumile) v.t. to eat raw bran of meal (millet). to eat sugar (chil-3dren) rel. -kumela (kumezi) to eat someone s uncooked bran of millet or sugar: U sike wa kumela natu mase a bona, don't eat people's bran . caus. -kumisa ( ku-misize) to give someone bran to eat int. -kumelela (kumelezi) to eat all the bran or sugar.

kuma3, n. papyrus, sedge growing in swamps (used to make mats).

-kuma-kuma (kuma-kumile) v.i. to be unwell (with reference to the Litunga, to the members of his family, or any baby).

-kumalela (kumalezi) v.t. (1) to cling zto, to cleave to; (2) to stick to, to adhere to: U sike wa kumalela mutu sya sa ku lati, don t cling to anyone twho is not fond of you. der. Iuku-malela. caus. -kumalelisa (kumaleli-Size) to cause to ~.

-kumba (kumbile) v.t. (1) to sit on eggs, to brood. (2) to keep one's legs close together.

kumbama (kumbami) v.i. to be sheltered from the wind; to be put up for the night (travellers).

-kumbana (kumbani) v.i. to be narrow, strait munyako o kumbani, a narrow gate. caus. -kumbanisa (kumbanisjze) to straiten, to make narrow.

-kumbeka (kumbekile) v.t. (1) to glVe travellers shelter for the night (2) to paddie a canoe along the hank, to shelter it from the wind: Mu kumbeke mukolo kwa mu-kenga, take the canoe along the bank.

-kumbela1 (kumbezi) v.t. to eat (with reference to the Litunga)

-kumbela2 (kumbezi) v.t. Luyana to beg, to ask for. der. mukumbeli, mukumbeleti. syn. -kupa.

-kumbilikana (kumbilikani) v.i. to be stirred up (as a crowd amazed or startled). der. umbili.

-kumbula (kumbuzi) v.i. to disap-prove, to reproach, to growl, to murmur, to mutter der. Iikambu. freq. -kumbaula (kumbauzi) fig. to roar (as a lion in the forest).

-kumbuluka (kumbulukile) v.i. to become suddenly conscious of something, to happen before one has time to realise anything: Ha ni yo kumbuluka, se ni li mwahali a mapolisa; before I had time to realise it, I was surrounded by police.

-kumuha (kumuhile) v.t. to come out, to be pulled out, extracted, uprooted: Lino li kumuhile hande, the tooth came out easily. syn. -nyukuka.

-kumuhela (kumuhezi) v.t. to go out in great numbers to welcome or to fight someone; Batu kaufela ba ku-muhezi ku Litunga, all the people went out to welcome the Litunga'.

-kumula (kumuzi) v.t. to pull out, to extract, to uproot. der. mukumuli, sikumuliso, mukumulelo. syn. -nyu-kula. rel. -kumulela (kumulezi) to ~ on someone's behalf. caus. -kum lisa (kumulisize) to order or to help someone to ~. int. -kumulelela (kumulelezi) to ~ completely. freq. -kumaula (kumauzi) to ~ re-peatedly.

-kumwa (kumwile) or kumwata (kumwatile) v.t. to start to beat the small drum in a set of three. der. si--

kumwa, mukumwati.

-kunda (kundile) v.t. to hide, to dis-simulate der. nekunda.

-kunda-kunda (kunda-kundile) v.i. to go on a beat (police-man), to go the rounds. der. Iikunda-kundi.

-kundama (kundami or kundamile) v.i. to shelter oneself, to find shel-ter, to take refuge. der. nekunda, mukunda. rel. -kundamela (kunda-mezi) fig. to lie in ambush. caus. -kundamisa (kundamisize) to cause to ~.

-kundeka (kundekile) v.t. to hide, to put in a safe place or shelter rel. -kundekela (kundekezi) to ~ for someone.

-kunduluka (kundulukile) v.i. to move stealthily in order to pass unobserved. rel. -kundulukela (kun-dulukezi) to ~ in or at (a place) caus. -kundulukisa (kundulukisize) to take something unobserved.

-kundumana (kundumani or kundu-manine) v.i. to be hunch-backed syn. -tundubala. caus. -kundumanisa (kundumanisize) to cause some-one's deformity.

-kundumbwa (kundumbwile) v.i. to move along gracefully with the (African) skirt swaying. der. nali-kundumbwa.

-kundunga (kundungile) v.t. to stir with a stick or a spoon (food and liquids). der. mukundungi, sikun-dungiso' mukundungelo. cf: -silula. rel. -kundungela (kundungezi) to ~ for someone caus. -kundungisa (kandungisize) to order or to help someone to ~.

kunduyamana (makunduyamana) n. Luyana. Iarge wild animal (eland, buffalo, etc ..) syn. Iikunduya-mana.

-kunga (kungile) or -kungushula (kungushuzi) v.t. to gather, to col-lect, to muster.

-kungula (kunguzi) v.t. to take (a spear, a stick, etc . ) in order to stab or to beat. rec. -kungulelana (kqngulelani or kungulelanile) (each) to take spears or sticks in order to stab or to beat each other

-kunguluka (kungulukile) to come together, to assemble in great numbers (people, cattle, etc . ) rel. -kungulukela (kungulukezi) to ~ somewhere: Sicaba kaufela si kungulukezi ku Litunga, all the people have gone to sce the Li-tunga

-kungumuna (kungumuzi) v.t. to call together, to collect (people or cattle) rel. -kungumunela (kungu-munezi) to ~ for a purpose int. -kungumunelela (kungumunelezi) to collect all without exception. caus. -kungumunisa (kungumunisize) to order or to help someone to ~.

-kungushula (kungusbuzi) v.t. sce: -kongoshola.

-kunka (kunkile) v.t. to light a large fire (travellers in the forest) caus. -kunkisa (kunkisize) to order or to help someone to ~.

-kunkulika (kankulikile) v.i. to roam about, to wander all over (as someone unable to stay any-where): Mwanana yo u kankulika hahulu, this child is going about too much caus. -kunkulikisa (kan-kulikisize) to cause someone to ~ (expecially young children). der. mukunkuliki.

-kunkumuna (kunkumuzi) v.t. to shake the branches of a tree, to make leaves or fruit fall: Moya cwale u so kunkumuna matali a likota, the wind is already making the leaves fall from the trees.

kunou, adj. brown (male cattle) With reference to women or female cattle: kunwana. (See: bu-kanou.)

kunu, noun taken adverbially: in an unknown way syn. itekelelwa' muye-muye, nakuwana.

-kunuka (kunukile) v.i. to fall down (pot) causing the spilling of a liquid

-kununa (kunuzi) v.t. to push a pot, causing the spilling of a liquid.

-kunupa (kunupile) v.t. to fire a gun; to throw, to shoot (a stone, etc) at someone or something: ku kueupa linyunywani, to shoot birds. der. mukanupi, mukunupelo. syn. tunya. rel. -kunupela (kunupezi) to shoot for someone. caus. -kunupisa (kunupisize) to cause someone to shoot ref. a) -ikunupa (ikunupile) to shoot oneself. b) -ikunupela (ikunupezi) to shoot (birds, ani-mals) for oneself.

kunupo (likunupo) n. button (see: -omela).

kunutu (likunutu) n. secret, confi-dential matter: Mu sike mwa bulela likunutu kwa batu, don't reveal se-crets to anyone

kunwa (bo-) gen. n. barbet (birds)

kunwana, adj. (See: kunou above.)

-kunyeka (kunyekile) v.t. (1) to smoke or dry by the fire (fish, meat, tobacco, etc...). (2) to make someone work overtime; to delay people by talking (or preaching) too long: Kacenu u lu kunyekile, today he has made us work late. rel. -kunyekela (kunye-kezi) to ~ for someone

-kua (kuile) v.i. to shake with fear, to tremble, to shiver rel.-kunela (kunezi) to shake with anger on account of someone, to be cross wlth someone; to shiver with desire or through being over-joyed: U kuela lisholi le li uzwize kubo ya hae, he is shaking with anger at the thief who stole his blanket caus. -kuisa (kuiiisize) to cause someone to tremble or shiver.

-kuama (kuami or kuamile) v.t. to catch and hold fast (as a thief caught in the very act).

-kuukela (kuukezi) v.t. to hold someone strongly by the hand.

-kuula (kuuzi) v.i. to speak (with reference to the chief)

-kunula (kunuluzi) v.t. to liberate someone from the effect of a mal-ediction due to a spell. der. muku-ululi,

-kuwela (kuwezi) v.t. to clear a forest garden of the bush which keeps growing in it. rel. -kuwelela (kuwelezi) to ~ for someone caus. -kuwelisa (kuwelisize) to I order or to help someone to ~.

-kuweta (kuwetite or kuwetile) v.t. to cast a spell (witchcraft) inv. -kuulula (kuuluzi) sce: -kuulula. der. sikuu, mukuu.

-kuomboka n. name given to the Lozi ceremony when people vacate flooded plains for dry higher land.

-kupa1 (kupile) v.t. to beg, to ask for, to request: Ni kupa sEco, I beg for food; U kupa sibaka, he asks for permission; ba kupa kelezo ku mina, they request your advice. der. mukupi, kupo, mukupelo. rel. -kupela (kupezi) to ask on behalf of someone. caus. -kupisa (kupisize) to cause someone to ask for; to ask in the name of someone without his f knowledge: Se si ni kupisa lico ki tala, it is hunger that makes me ask for food; U sike wa yo ni kupisa, u yo kupa ili wena, don't ask in my name, ask for yourself. ref. -lku-pela (ikupezi) to present one's own request

kupa2 (likupa) n. empty snail shell. syn. ongolo.

kupo (likupo) n. request, applica tion, prayer. (from: -kupa)

kupuka2 (kupukile) v.i. to go with the current (as fish spreading with flood water); to float along (as maize cobs from flooded gardens).

kupuka2 (kupukile) v.i. to become rich, well off, prosperous: Musho-kabanji ne li njebwe, kacenu sa kupu-kile bakei sa ka Cola mail amaata; Mushokabanji was a poor man, but he is well off today due to the large salary he is drawing. caus. -kupula (kupuzi) to enrich, to make wealthy.

-kupula (kupuzi) v.i. & v.t. to jump with a stroke of the tail (fish); to strike with the tail (with reference to a crocodile taking its prey into water).

kupuliso (likupuliso) n. reminder. (from: -hupula) syn. kupuzo.

kupulo (likupulo) n. thought, inten-tion, mind: Ni na ni kupulo ya ka yaha ndu unomwaha, it is my inten-tion to build a house this year. (from: -hupula).

kupuzo (likupuzo) n. reminder memorial, remembrance: Sikolo sa Munali ki kupuzo ya David Living-stone, Munali School is a mem-orial to David Livingstone. (from: -hupula).

-kusha (kushize) v.t. to shake a cala-bash into which water has been poured to clean it. rel. -kusheza (kuhelize) to ~ for someone, to ~ In a certain place: Uyo kusheza sih-wana kwa liabwa, go and wash the. calabash at the canal.

kushoni (likushoni) n. Eng. cushion.

-kushuka (kushukile) v.i. to break-fast. der. mukushuko. caus. -kushu-kisa (kushukisize) to give someone food for his breakfast.

-kushula1 (kushuzi) v.t. to eat food (as sweet potatoes or roasted cas-sava roots) and drink milk by turns. caus. -kushulisa (kushulisize) to alternate food and drink.

-kushula2 (kushuzi) v.t. to take off the pulp of leaves (sisal, aloe, etc.) to get the fibres. (see: lukushe).

kusili, adv. elsewhere, somewhere else; in an other way or manner Ha lo yi kwa Serbia, lo ya kusili; we are not going to Sefula, we are going somewhere else; Mo ba sebe-leza ki kusili, the way they do it is different.

-kusufala (kusufezi) v.i. to be short. caus. -kusufaza (kusufalize) to shorten.

kuswani, adj. short (in time or space): mazazi amakuswanifela, a few days only, a short time; sibaka sesikuswani, a short distance. mute yomukuswani, a short person.

kuta1 (likuta or makuta) n. public court, tribunal, council: mwa kuta in the court-house; ka isana kwa kuta, to go to law, to litigate, to carry on a lawsuit.

-kuta2 (kutile) v.t. to curse, to wish evil upon, to utter imprecations: Ku maswe mushemi ka kuta mwan'a Rae, it is bad for a parent to invoke evil upon his child. der. mukuti, sikut. syn. -ndandala. rel. -kutela (kutezi) to curse on account of, or on someone's behalf. caus. -kutisa (kutisize) to subject someone to a curse, to cause misfortune to someone. ref. -lkutisa (ikutisize) to make oneself liable to a curse.

kuta3 (kutile) v.t. Eng. to give a hair cut; to shear (sheep): KimanEya mi Utile? who has cut your hair? der. mukuti, mukutelo, sikutiso. syn. -kukula. rec. -kutana (kutani or ku-tanile) to cut each other's hair. ref. -lkuta (ikutile) as rec.

kuta4 (kutile) v.i. to return, to go heck. to rome hong: Haiba mu funduka kacenu, mu ka kuta lili? if you j L go today, when will you come back? syn. -menuha. fig. to die of old age. syn. -holoha. der. kutisano. rel. -kutela (kutezi) to go back to to return to: U kutezi kwa hae mabani, he went back home yesterday. pass -kutelwa (kutezwi) followed by 'ki': to gain, to profit, to obtain a compensation: Ha ni kutelwi ki sesinwi mwa tekiso ya ka, I get no profit from my sales. caus. -kutisa (kutisize) (1) to take back, to send or give back, to return: I<:amuso ni ka kutisa mukeke wa mina, I shall return your plate to-morrow- (2) to be profitable: Mu-sebezi o kutisa Mali, a profitable job. spec. exp. Ku kutisa moya, to recover from a fainting fit; ka kutisa mahutu, to go back (with ref-erence to a bride visiting her parents after the wedding); ka kutisa musali, to remarry a former wife; ka kutisa ndu ya wa habo mute, to marry the widow of a dead rela-tion rec. -kutisana (kutisaniJ to become reconciled.

-kuta5 to shrink: Hembeya ka ikutile my shirt has shrunk

-kutaza (kutalize) v.t. to exhort, to urge to good deeds; to preach. der. mukutazi, kutazo.

kutazo (likutazo) n. exhortation; re-ligious message. (from: -kutaza) cf. tuto.

-kuteka (kutekile) v.t. to show re-spect, to, to honour: Kuteka nda-taho ni maho, honour your father and your mother. der. Iikute. syn. -tompa. rel. -kutekela (kutekezi) to ~ on account of stat. -kutekeha (h tekehile) to be honoured. rec. -ku-tekana (kutekani) to honour each other freq. -kutekanga to have the habit of showing respect. ref. -iku-teka (ikutekile) to have self-re-spect.

-kutekela (kutelezi) v.t. (1) to con-sent for politeness sake (2) to accuse falsely U sike wa kutelela mute ka sa sika eza, don't accuse anyone without sufficient grounds der. kutululo. inv. -kutulula (kutu-luzi) to bring to light someone's guilt.

kuti, see: kutwi.

kutisano, n. reconciliation (from:-kuta)

kuto (likuto) n. full stop (between sentences) (.)

-kutula1 (kutuzi) v.t. to harvest, to reap, to gather in: Unomwaha lu kutuzi lico zenata, this year we ga-thered in good crops. der. muku-tuli, mukutulisi, kutulo, sikutulelo. rel. -kutulela (kutulezi) to ~ for someone caus. -kutulisa (kutuli-size) to order or to help to ~ int. -kutulelela (kutulelezi) to gather in the whole crop.

kutula2 (likutula) n. stout, strong healthy man.

kutulo (likutulo) n. harvest (from: -kutula)

kutululo, n. evidence (from:-kute- | Bela) l

-kutumana (kutumani or kutumanine) v.i. (1) to be silent, pensive, quiet: Mu sike mwa kutumanafela, |mu no ambola, don't keep so quiet, make conversation. (2) to be eased, relieved: Butuku be kutu- manifela, the pain is only tempo- rarily eased cf: -ulumana. caus. -kutumanisa (kutumanisize) to cause someone to keep quiet; to alleviate pain.

kutwana (likutwana) n. colon (:) syn. koloni.

kutwano (likutwano) n. concord, harmony, agreement (from: -utwa).

kutwelo-butuku, n. pity, compassion (from -utwa).

kutwi or kuti, expression meaning: it is said, they say, etc.: Ni utwile fela kutwi, ha ni sika utwa hande, I have just heard people saying so, I cannot affirm it. Kutwi cwaiii? what do you say? what do you mean?

kutwisiso, n. understanding, intelli-gence. (from: -utwa).

-kuwa1 (kuwile) v.t. Luyana. to shout. syn. -huwa. der. kakuwa.

-kuwa2 (kuwile) v.i. to come to an end, to be finished (with reference to fruit when the season is over): Miselo i se i kuwile mwa mushitu the wild fruit are already finished in the forest.

kuwani (likuwani) n. hat, head-dress.

-kuwela (kuwezi) v.t. to drive cattle beating them, in order to make them go quickly. fig. to use strong means to gather people together.

kuye-kuye, adv. in the distant future. idiom. exp: Kuye-kuye ni wena konji u swane ni na, one day in the distant future, we shall all be the same. (lit: in the distant future you will not avoid being in the same position as myself ... we shall all be dead!).

-kuyuka (kuyukile) v.i. to become soft, worn, thin through use: Lisila le se li kurukile. this cloth has al-ready become thin. fig. to cool down, to subside: Buhali bwa hae bu kuyukile. his anger has subsided. caus. -kuyula (kuyuzi) to soften. fig. to make cool, to moderate, to pacify.

-kuyula (kuyuzi) v.i. to grumble to be discontented. dissatisfied. un-grateful: Ku maswe ku/i kafa wa ca. kafa wa kurula, it is impolite to grumble about hunger while eating. der. mukuvwe.

-kuza (kuzize) v.i. to become or keep silent, to hold one's tongue. to cease crying: A mu kuze kaufela mina, please be silent all of you. fig. to cease blowing (wind); to be calm (river): Kacenu ku kazize hakuna mova, today it is cahn, there is no wind; U sabafela ku ,vi/a, nuka i kuzize! he just fears to cross, for the river is quite calm. rel. -kuzeza (kuzelize) to keep pur-posely silent. caus. -kuzisa (kuzi-size) to make silent, to appease, to quieten, to calm: Banana a mu kuze! children stop this noise!

kuzana (likuzana) n. Sotho. orphan. syn. ndiyala.

kwa1, prep. to, from, in, at: there: some of: Ni ya kwa naka, I am going to the river: Llu ya kwa baluti, we are going to the teach-ers: Ba zwa kwa Nalolo, they come from Nalolo Banana ba yo tapa kwa nuka, the children are going to swim in the river: Mu ta mufumana kwa Lealui, you will find him at Lealui: Mo nife kwatei1i, give me some of it: etc . ..

kwa2, adv. of place. (a) used on its own: Niya kwa, I am going there. (b) used to form compound ad-verbs of place (or prepositions) such as: kwahalimu, kwatasi, kwa-tuko, etc . . . (see under such ad-verbs or prepositions).

kwa3, indef. pron. some (of): Mu nife kwa sico sa mina, give me some of your food please.

-kwa4 (kwile) v.i. (1) to spit. fig. to give up bad manners: U .vi kwe.' give up doing so: beware! (2) to be weaned: Mbututu vo na sa lukeli ku kwa nako ve, this baby should not have been weaned at this time. cf. -umuka. rel. -kwela (kwezi) to spit on, or in the direction of: ku kwela fafa.vi, to spit on the ground. idiom. exp. ku kwela mutu mati, to bless someone (blessing given by parents or elders) caus. -kwisa (kwisize) to make someone spit; to wean fig. to make someone give up an evil habit

-kwaa (kwaile) v.t. (1) to spread fame to make someone famous: Mute yo ba mu kwaa ka bunde, they speak highly of that person; (2) to spread malicious report, to defame: Mute yo ba mu kwaa ka bu-maswe. they speak evil of that person der. Iukwaa.

-kwaaela (kwaaezi) v.i. to be uncon-querable Manna yo wa kwaaela, hakuna ya kona ka mu bita; this man is very strong, no one can throw him down.

kwaba1 (likwaba) n. Eng. guava

kwaba2, adj. white and brown(male cattle): Puluyekwaba, awhite-and-brown ox (with reference to female cattle: kwabana).

-kwabaela (kwabsezi) v.i. to walk heavily moving one's arms. rel. -kwabaelela (kwabaelezi) to ~ to-wards a place. caus. -kwabaelisa (kwabaelisize) to make someone to ~

-kwaboka (kwabokile) v.i. see: -kwe-boka.

kwacha (likwacha) n. Zambian unit of money worth hundred ngwee.

-kwacisa (kwacisize) v.t. Eng. to catch someone unawares.

-kwaeza (kwaelize) v.t. to drive a span of draught oxen. der. muk-waezi. rel. -kwaezeza (kwaezelize) to ~ for someone caus. -kwaezisa (kwaezisize) to help someone to ~.

kwahalimu, adv. upwards: Talima kwahalimu, look upwards

-kwahela (kwahezi) v.i. & v.t. (1) to overspread (clouds): Male a kwa-hezi, the sky is cloudy (2) to cover, to put a lid on Mu kwahele pa pizana, cover the pot (3) spec. exp: ka kwahela matufa piza, to give a patient a vapour bath. der. sikwahelo, sikwahezo, mukwahe-lelo. fig. exp: Unomwaha ki silimo sa kwahela, this year is a year of famine. rel. -kwahelela (kwahelezi) to cover for someone; to put something under cover: Mu kwahe-lele kulu mwa mukeke, put the tor-toise in a covered dish. caus. -kwa-helisa (kwahelisize) to order or to help someone to cover. inv. -kwa-hulula (kwahuluzi) to uncover, to remove a lid.

kwahule, adv. far: U zwa kai? Ni zwa kwahule! where are you coming from? I come from far away! prep. kwahule ni, far from: Ni kwahule ni wena, I am far from you. (see: hale),

kwai (likwai) n. tobacco, snuff, cigarette: Kwai ya mina i buhali hahulu, your tobacco is very strong.

-kwaka1 (kwakile) v.t. to rumour, to circulate (by good or bad report), to spread tales: Taba ya hae ba i kwakile naha kaufela, they have spread reports of his action throughout the whole land.

-kwaka2 (kwakile) v.t. to rub (medi-cine): Ni bata ka mu kwaka mulyani mwa mukokoto, I want to rub some medicine on his back. rel. -kwa-kela (kwakezi) to ~ on someone's behalf. caus. -kwskisa (kwakisize) to order or to help someone to ~.

-kwakala (kwakalile) v.i. to be scat-tered: Likomu li kwakalile mwa libala, the cattle are scattered all over the plain. fig. to get spread (rumours).

-kwakaleka (kwakalekile) v.t. to scatter things all over, to throw carelessly about: Mu sike mwa kwa-kaleka libyana mwa ndu, don't scat-ter things all over the house.

-kwakuka (kwakukile) v.i. to be well scrubbed or cleaned.

-kwakula (kwakuzi) v.t. to scrub, to cleanse; to rub in medicine. rel.-kwakulela (kwakulezi) to ~ for someone. caus. -kwakulisa (kwaku-lisize) to order or to help to ~.

-kwakwata (kwakwatile) v.t. to catch fish with the hand in shallow water. der. mukwakwati. rel. -kwakwatela (kwakwatezi) to ~ for someone, to ~ in a certain place. caus. . -kwakwatisa ( kwskwatisize ) to order or to help someone to ~.

-kwala (kwalile) v.t. to shut, to close: Mu kwale sikwalo, shut the door. der. sikwaliso, mukwalelo. rel. -kwalela (kwalezi) to shut Mwa-nana ba mu kwalezifande, they shut the child out. in or out: caus. -kwa-lisa (kwalisize) to cause or to help to ~. int. -kwalelela (kwalelezi) to close all doors. stat. -kwaleha (kwalehile) to be shut: Munyako u kwalehile, the entrance is shut inv. -kwalula (kwaluzi) to open (see: -kwalula). ref. -kwala (ikwalile) to shut itself.

kwalata (likwalata) n. roan or sable antelope.

kwale, adv. yonder. cf. kwani.

-kwalela (kwalezi) v.i. to breathe with difficulty: MukulEyo u kwalezi mwa sifuba, the patient breathes with difficulty. caus. -kwalelisa (kwalelisize) to cause to ~.

-kwalipana (kwalipani) v.i. to con-test with someone of equal strength.

-kwaloka (kwalokile) v.i. to move with speed, to walk hurriedly: Mu no kwaloka kwa ku zamaya, hurry up when you walk. rel, -kwalokela (kwalokezi) to hurry on to. caus. -kwalokisa (kwalokisize) to cause to ~: Kacenu lu ka kwalokisa musebezi wa luna, today we shall do our work in no time at all. rel. -kwaloki-seza ( kwalokiselise) to do some-thing quickly for someone: Mu ni kwalokiseze bakiyeo, bring me that jacket quickly.

-kwaluha (kwaluhile) v.i. to get opened. fig. exp. ku kwaluha toho to be clever, highly educated.

-kwalula (kwaluzi) or -kwalulula (kwaluluzi) v.t. to open: U sike wa kwalula sikwalo, don't open the door. rel. -kwalulela (kwalulezi) to ~ to or for: Mu ni kwalulele likapa le open this tin for me. caus. -kwalu-lisa (kwalulisize) to order or to help someone to ~. int. -kwalule-lela (kwalulelezi) to open all doors. int-stat. -kwaluluha (kwaluluhile) to be open, to get opened. ref. -lkwa-lula (ikwaluzi) to open itself.

kwamulaho, adv. afterwards behind. prep. (kwamulaho a) after. See: mwamulaho.

-kwana (kwanile) v.i. to be suffi-cient, to be complete: Bana ba sikolo ha ba sika kwana kale, there are not enough children at the school yet. fig, to be up to the mark or standard: Mutu yo ha sika kwana hande, this man is not up to the standard. caus. -kwanisa (kwa-nisize) to complete, to make suffi-cient, to bring to the required amount: Mu ka kwanisa lili litina za mina? when will you complete your quota of bricks?

-kwandanga ( kwandangile ) v. i. to be doubtful, uneasy in mind. caus.-kwandangisa (kwandangisize) to make someone doubtful.

kwande, adv. outside, out-of-doors, in open air: Mu ine kwande, sit out-side. prep. apart from, except: Kwand'a mwana ka yo hakuna usili ya ka ni tusa, apart from my child there is no one else to help me.

kwandu, n. a chief's resident or palace.

-kwanganya (kwanganyize) v.t. to catch in the very act, to seize and hold fast: Zazi ni ka kwanganya mutu mwa simu ya ka ni ka mu nata hahulu, the day I catch somebody in my garden I shall beat him soundly. syn. -swala.

-kwanguka1 (kwangukile) v.i. to be a wide open place: Bulozi bu kwang-ukile, the Bulozi Plain is a wide open space.

-kwanguka2 (kwangukile) v.i. to have strong healthy lungs, to be in good health.

-kwangula ( kwanguzi) v.i. to raise the voice (people), to bellow nois-ily (cattle).

-kwangulula (kwanguluzi) v.t. to drink becr remaining in a pot.

-kwani, adv. over there. cf. kwale.

-kwankumuka (kwankumukile) v.i. to come off (dry bark from a dead tree).

-kwankumuna (kwankumuzi) v.t. to remove a large piece of bark from a dead tree. rel. -kwankumunela (kwankumunezi) to gather dry bark for someone. caus. -kwanku-munisa (kwankumunisize) to order or to help someone to gather dry bark.

-kwanula (kwauzi) v.t. to eat food grcedily, being never satisfied with one's share. der. mukwanuli.

-kwaota (kwaotile) v.t. to carry a small load in the hand. cf. -lwala. Rel. -kwaotela (kwaotezi) to ~ for someone.

kwanu, adv. here: Amu tahe kwanu, come here.

kwapili, adv. ahead, beforez for-ward prep. (kwapili a) in front of. See: pili.

-kwasa (kwasize) v.i. to boil (as a potful of fresh fish or meat)

-kwasa-kwasa (kwasa-kwasize) v.t. to try to catch, to try to hold (with reference to anything dropping from the hands or to someone run-ning away).

-kwasha (kwashize) v.i. to clap hands rhythmically assisting a i dancer. rel. -kwashela (kwashezi) to clap hands for a professional dancer, or for a girl during her ini-tiation.

-kwashama (kwashami or kwasha-mile) v.i. to lie falt (as a drunkard or a dead person).

-kwasheka (kwashekile) v.t. to cheat, to deceive, to betray. der. kakwasha. syn. -puma.

-kwashoka (kwashokile) v.i. to walk hurriedly. der. Iikwashauki.

-kwashuka (kwashukile) v.i. as: -kwashama.

kwashula (kwashuzi) v.i. to hurry, to ] make haste, to be quick. der. sik-washu.

-kwata (kwatile) v.t. Luyana. to marry (man) der. Iikwata.

kwatasi, adv. under, underneath, below, down, downwards: Lu ya kwatasi, we go downwards (health). prep. (kwatasi a) under: Ni fumani buka kwatas'a tafule, I found the book under the table.

kwatuko, adv. apart, aside. prep. (kwatuko a) on the side of, near.

kwaula1 (kwauzi) v.i. to walk in a soldier-like manner (swinging the arms) to swing arms.

-kwaula2 (kwauzi) v.t. to hold fast in order to beat or to strangle: Zazi ni ta ku kwaula ni ta ku holofaza maswe; the day I take hold of you, I shall hurt you badly.

kwaulu, kwausu, conj. were it not, had it not been: Kwaulu ni be teini kabe ba mu bulaile, had I not been present, they would have killed him.

-kwayuka (kwyukile) v.i. to look greyish (the skin when in need of soap or ointment). caus. -kwayula (kwayuzi) or-kwayukisa (kwayuki-size) to make grey: Mezi a sina mulola a kwayula mubili, water without soap makes the skin grey.

-kwaza1(kwazize) v.t. to stab with a spear. der. mukwazi, mukwazo.

-kwaza2 (kwazize) v.t. to complete an appointed task. der. mukwazo.

kwe! interj. expressing dissent: Kwe! Mute yo ha ni na ka ya ni yena! no fear, I shall not go with that person.

-kweboka (kwebokile) v.i. to walk hurriedly. syn. -kwaboka. rel. -kwe-bokela (kwebokezi) to to a place, to for a purpose. caus. -kwebokisa (kwebokisize) to cause someone to ~.

kwebu, adj. grey and white (male cattle) (with reference to female cattle: kozwana).

-kwebula (kwebuzi) v.t. to take something away stealthily or unobserved: Ki mai ya kwebuzi kuwani ya ka? who has taken away my hat? rel. -kwebulela (kwebulezi) to from, or on someone's behalf.

-kweca-meno (kwecile-meno) v.t. to gnash or grind the teeth. der. Iik-weca-meno.

-kweceka (kwecekile) v.t. to catch with a rope (cattle).

-kweela (kweezi) v.i. Luyana. to lose the benefit of privileges because of one's misbehaviour. der. muk-weela.

-kweka (kwekile) v.i. to stay long with people expecting a gift (food). rel. -kwekela (kwekezi) to stay long for a definite purpose: Ku kwekela lico, to stay long hoping to be asked to a meal.

-kwekuka (kwekulile) v.i. to be hair-less, bald; to be stripped off cover ing: ka kwekuka meto, to be bare (with reference to eyes stripped off eyelashes). interj. kwekuu ! Toho ya hae i pi kwekuu! his head is bald; his head is clean shaven!

-kwekula (kwekuzi) v.t. to strip, to scrub, to make free of blemish: Mu kwekule table, scrub the table.

-kwekunyuka (kwekunyukile) v.i. to be bare (as a bone without meat). -kwekunyuna (kwekunyuzi) v.t. to nibble at a bone and leave it clean. fig. to dispossess someone, to take away someone's property due to insolvency, or divorce.

-kwekwelekana (kwekwelekani) v.i. to cluck (hen after egg-laying).

-kwekwema (kwekwemile) v.i. to laugh without reason (especially of children). rel. -kwekwemela (kwek-wemezi) to in or at (a place). caus. -kwekwemisa (kwekwemisize) to cause someone to.

-kwekwenya (kwekwenyize) v.t. to slander, to speak evil of an absent person: Mwa ni kwekwenya ha ni li siyo! you slander me when I am not present. syn. -wewenya. caus. -kwekwenyisa ( kwekwenyisize) to cause to.

-kwela (kwezi) v.t. to board (train, car or aircraft): Kamuso ni ka kwela kakusasa, tomorrow I shall get on the train in the morning. cfi -longana. rel. -kwelela (kwelezi) to in or at (a place): Lo kwelezi mwa Libingi, we boarded the train at Livingstone. caus. -kwelisa (kweli-size) to see someone off; to pay someone's fare.

kwele (likwele) n. leather strap; thong (formerly used to fasten skin skirts).

kweli (likweli) n. (1) the moon: Kweli ha i tasa, the new moon kweli ha i li Pa busweu, the fuli moon; Kweli ha i ya kwa tiff, the waning moon. the last quarter. (2) a month (lunar or calendar):

Sope January (the first month for food)

Yowa February (the water is spreading)

Liatamanyi March (the flood is up)

Lungu April (the water stands still)

Kandao May (the water recedes)

Mbuwana June (the days change)

Sikulu July (the month of great winds)

Muyana August (the month of little sun)

Muimunene September (the month of fierce sun)

Yenda October (the month of sun and rain)

Njimwana November (the month of little food)

Nulule December (the month of hunger)

Sikweti-kweti (the thirteenth lunar month accord-ing to Lozi tradition)

spec. exp: ka tulwa ki kweli, to miss a period (with reference to a woman in the early stages of pregnancy).

kwelyuka (kwelyukile) v.i. to flash past, to pass quickly: Ni boni mute ya kwelyukile Pa, I saw someone flashing past. syn. -kweshuka. freq. -kwelyauka (kwelyaukile) or -kwe-lyoka (kwelyokile) to roam about (especially at night); to walk steal-thily, eavesdropping. caus. -kwe-lyaukisa (kwelyaukisize) (1) to cause someone to roam about through fear of being caught: Se si mu kwelyaukisa cwana ki sika mai? what makes him roam about in that way? (2) to move something from place to place in order to hide it: U sike wa kwelyaukisa baki ya ka cwalo, don't try to hide my jacket in that way!

-kwemuna (kwemuzi) v.t. to beat severely with a sjambok. freq. -kwemauna (kwemauzi) to repeat-edly . rel. -kwemaunela ( kwemau-nezi) to repeatedly on someone's behalf caus. -kwemaunisa (kwe-maunisize) to cause someone to ~ repeatedly.

kwena1 (likwena) n. crocodile fig. a stingy person syn. ngandu, siyanga, imashamba.

kwena2 (likwena) n. pliers, small i pacers.

-kwena-kwena (kwena-kwenile) v.i. to look for hurriedly, to scarch: Ni li ka kwena-kwena muhuma wa ka ha ni u bond look round as I may, I don't find my hoe. der. Iikwena-kwena. cf. -yela-yela. caus. -kwena-kwenisa (kwena-kwenisize) to chase, to pursue in order to catch

-kwenanga (kwenangile) v.i. to be bereaved, to be left alone; to be unsuccessful in looking for help der. samakwenanga.

-kwendauka (kwendaukile) v.i. to swing, to move to and fro (any-thing hanging in air) caus. -kwen-daukisa (kwendaukisize) to cause to Moya u kwendaukisa mutiyo wa ka, the wind is swinging the load tied to the end of my carrying stick

-kwenga (kwengile) v.t. to fish with a basket (women). der. mukwengi, syn. -shuwa. rel. -kwengela (kweng-ezi) to for someone caus. sikweng-iso -kwengisa (kwengisize) to help someone to.

-kwenga-meno ( kwengile-meno ) v.t . to gnash teeth as a hippopotamus when cicanilig its mouth aftcr cut-ting in two a person it caught.

-kwenguka ( kwengukile) v.i. to be cloudlcss: Kacenu ku keengukile keahalimu, today the sky is blue.

-kwengula (kwenguzi) v.i. to speak loudly. der. makwengula.

-kwenuha ( kwenuhile) v.i. (1) to turn hack. to retrace one's steps to return Ml~ ka kwemlha /ili7 when will you come back'? (2) to change one's mind. to retract to break a promise: to backslide. der. muhwe-nuhi hukwenuhi rel. -kwenuhela (kwenuhezi) to turn against: to turn away from: Liywalili u ni kwe-nuhezi, Liywalii has turned away f'rom me. caus. -kwenula (kwenuzi) or -kwenuhisa ( kwenuhisize) to cause to.

-kwenuka(kwenukile) v.i. to look for anything lost or missing: Ni li ka keemxta mean'a ka ni palezzi ku n1u /innana, although I looked hard for my child I have failed to find him.

-kwenyuka ( kwenyukile ) v.i. to be left destitute. caus. -kwenvuna (kwenvuzi) to dispossess: Ba mu keeniu i ca hae kauJela, they have taken away all his property.

-kwesa (kwesize) v t. to fit a handle to: Mu kwese n?uhuoza ua ka. please fit a handle to my hoe. der. muk-wesi mukweso mukwesezo. rel. -kweseza (kweselize) to for some-one. caus. -kwesisa (kwesisize) to order or to help someone to.

-kweshuka (kweshukile) v.i. to flash past. to pass quickly. syn. -kwe-lyuka. caus. -kweshula (kweshuzi) to take away quickly or stealthily.

kweta1 (iikweta) n. bribe: ku leka keeta. to bribe: ku leka mutu keeta to bribe someone in order to get another into trouble.

-kweta2 (kwetile) v.i. to sprain. syn. -leya.

-kwica (kwicize) v t to draw or bend back: Kaze i keicize manala, the cat has drawn back its claws.

-kwicana ( kwicani ) v.i. to get re-tracted closed: Manala a ka:e a kwicani, thc cat's claws are in.

-kwikwilikana (kwikwilikani) v.i. ERng. to work hastily: Mu keikwili-kane mu.sebezi mu c aele kapili, hurry up with the work so that you mav soon go home.

kwiti n. the depth of hollow-ware: mukeke ua keiti. a hollow dish. a bowl.