Barotseland bibliography by subject

-to include all regions whose history, culture and political economy has been shaped to greater or lesser extent by Barotse/Lozi/Makololo influence.

 

Balovale – see Luvale/Lovale/Balovale Lunda/Balunda/

 

Botswana

-literature wholly focusing on Botswana/Bechuanaland but relevant to an understanding of Barotseland/Western Province/Caprivi/Lozi issues.

 

Nettelton, G.E. (1934) ‘History of the Ngamiland tribes up to 1926’, Bantu Studies, 8, 343-360 [carries text on ‘Mpukushu’]

 

Caprivi

Bruchmann, D.K. (2000) Caprivi, an African Flashpoint: An Illustrated History of Namibi’s Tropical Region where Four Countries Meet (Author’s Edition), Northcliff, South Africa.

 

Fisch, M. (1999a) The Caprivi Strip during the German Colonial Period 1890 to 1914 [English translation], Out of Africa Publishers, Windhoek.

_____(1999b) The Secessionist Movement in Caprivi: A Historical perspective, Namibia Scientific Society, Windhoek.

 

Flint, L.S. (2003) ‘State-building in central southern Africa: Citizenship and subjectivity in Barotseland and Caprivi’, International Journal of African Historical Studies, 36, 2, 393-428.

 

International Court of Justice (1999) Verbatim record of public sitting in the case concerning Kasikili/Sedudu Island (Botswana/Namibia) [CR99/4], The Hague.

 

Kangumu, B.K. (2000) ‘A forgotten corner of Namibia: Aspects of the History of the Caprivi Strip, c1939-1980, unpublished MA Dissertation, University of Cape Town, 2000/24537.

 

Kruger, C.E. ‘The Eastern Caprivi Zipfel’ unpublished document held by National Archives of Namibia, Windhoek – File P/B0139.

______(1984) ‘A History of the Caprivi’ unpublished typescript. Copy inspected at National Archives of Namibia, Windhoek [A472].

 

Reid, P.C. (1901) ‘Journeys in the Linyanti region’, Geographical Journal, 17, 6, 573-588.

 

Sasa, D. (2000) ‘The Mayeyi Chieftainship’, paper presented at seminar held at University of Namibia, 22-25 August, 2000 entitled ‘Public History: Forgotten History’.

 

Schultz. A and Hammar. A. (1897) The New Africa: A Journey up the Chobe and down the Okavango Rivers – A Record of Exploration and Sport, William Heinemann, London.

 

Sehani, M. (2000) ‘The Mafwe/Mayuni crisis: rival histories and the assertion of identity in the Caprivi’, paper presented at seminar held at University of Namibia, 22-25 August, 2000 entitled ‘Public History: Forgotten History’.

 

Stanley, W.R. (2002) ‘Namibia’s unstable northern frontier’ Tijdschift voor Economische en Sociale Geografie, 93, 4, 369-382.

 

Streitwolf, H. (1911) Der Caprivizipfel, Wilhelm Süsserott, Berlin.

 

Trollope, L.F.W. (1941) ‘Report of the Administration of the Eastern Caprivi Zipfel’, Department of Native Affairs, Pretoria.

______(1956) 'The Eastern Caprivi Zipfel', Northern Rhodesia Journal, 3, 2, 107-118.

 

Zeller, W. (2000) ‘Interests and socio-economic development in the Caprivi Region from a historical perspective’, Namibian Economic Policy Research Unit, Windhoek.

 

Early explorers/adventurers/hunters/missionaries/traders (prior to 1900)

Arnot, F.S. (1889) Garenganze or Seven Year’s Pioneer Work in Central Africa, James E. Hawkins, London, [pp. 276].

______(1969) Garenganze or Seven Year’s Pioneer Work in Central Africa, New edition of 1889 work, Frank Cass, London

 

Bertrand, A. The Kingdom of the Barotsi of Upper Zambezia, T. Fisher Unwin, London.

 

Coillard, F. (1897) On the Threshold of Central Africa: A record of Twenty Years Pioneering Among the Barotsi of the Upper Zambezi, Hodder and Staughton, London

______(1898) Sur le Haut Zambèse, Berger-Lerrault, Paris.

______(1971) On the Threshold of Central Africa: A record of Twenty Years Pioneering Among the Barotsi of the Upper Zambezi, Third Edition with a new Introduction by Max Gluckman, Frank Cass, London.

 

Ellenberger, D.F. (1912) History of the Basuto Ancient and Modern, Caxton Publishing, London.

 

Favre, E. (1913) François Coillard Missionaire au Zambèze, Société des Missions Evangeliques, Paris.

 

Gibbons, A. St. H. (1897) ‘A journey in the Marotse and the Mashukulumbwe countries’, Geographical Journal, 9, 2, 121-143.

______(1898a) ‘Marotseland and the Tribes of the Upper ZambeziProceedings of the Royal Colonial Institute, 260-276.

______(1898b)  Exploration and Hunting in Central Africa 1895-96, Methuen and Co., London.

______(1901) ‘Explorations in Marotseland and neighbouring regions’, Geographical Journal, 17, 106-134.

______(1904) Africa from North to South through Marotseland (Two Volumes), John Lane, The Botley Head, London.

______(1905) Review of In Remotest Barotoseland by Harding, C, Geographical Journal, 26, 444-445.

 

Harding, C. (1933) Far Bugles, Simpkin Marshall, London.

______(1905) In Remotest Barotseland: Being an Account of a Journey of over 8000 miles through the Wildest and Remotest Parts of Lewanika’s Empire, Hurst and Blackett, London.

 

Holub, E. (1879) A Cultural Survey of the Lozi-Mbunda Kingdom in South Central Africa, Royal Imperial Geographical Society, Vienna.

______(1881) Seven Years in South Africa: Travels, Researches, and Hunting Adventures, between the Diamond Fields and the Zambesi (1872-79) [2 volumes], Sampson Low. Marston, Searle and Rivington, London.

______(1890) Von der Capstadt ins Land der Maschukulumbe Reisen im Südlichen Afrika in den Jahren 1883-7, Alfred Hölder, Wien.

 

Jacottet, E. (1896)Etudes sur les Langues du Haut Zambèze, E. Leroux, Paris.

 

Jalla, A. and E. (1904) Pionniers parmi les Ma-Rotse, Imprimarie Claudienne, Florence.

 

Johnson, J. (1893) Reality versus Romance in South Central Africa, Hodder and Stoughton, London.

 

Livingstone, C. (1861-2) ‘On the Batoka country’, Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, VI.

 

Livingstone, D. ‘Explorations into the Interior of Africa’, Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, 24, (1854), pp. 291-306.

______Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa (John Murray, London, 1857)

______‘Extract from Despatches of Dr. David Livingstone 1858-1861’, Journal of the Royal Geographical Society, 3 (1861), pp. 18-24.

______(1905) Missionary Travels and Researches in South Africa, Maclaren and Co., London.

 

Livingstone, D. and C. (1865) Narrative of an Expedition to the Zambezi and its Tributaries, John Murray, London.

 

Mackenzie, J. (1871) Ten Years North of the Orange River: A Story of Everyday Life and Work among the South African Tribes from 1859-1869, Edmonton and Douglas, Edinburgh, 1871.

 

Mackintosh, C.W. (1907) Coillard of the Zambezi, T. Fisher Unwin, London.

 

Reid, P.C. (1901) ‘Journeys in the Linyanti region’, Geographical Journal, 17, 6, 573-588.

 

Schultz. A and Hammar. A. (1897) The New Africa: A Journey up the Chobe and down the Okavango Rivers – A Record of Exploration and Sport, William Heinemann, London.

 

Selous, F.C. (1893) ‘Twenty Years in Zambesia’, Geographical Journal, 4, 1, 289-324.

______(1881) ‘Journeys in the interior of South Central Africa’, Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society (New Series), 3, 3, 169-175.

______(1893) Travel and Adventure in South-East Africa: Being the Narrative of the last Author on the Zambesi and its tributaries, Rowland Ward, London.

 

Tabler, E.C. [ed.] (1963) Trade and Travel in Early Barotseland: The Diaries of George Westbeech 1885-1888 and Captain Norman MacLeod 1875-1876, Chatto and Windus, London.

 

Kaonde/Ba-Kaonde

Chibanza, S.J. (1961) ‘Kaonde history’, Part II of Central Bantu historical texts I, Rhodes-Livingstone Communication No. 22, Rhodes-Livingstone Institute, Lusaka [contains fascinating story of two attempts to subdue Jipumpu Kasempa VIII by parties sent by Lewanika in 1891 and 1897].

 

Language: Silozi, Sikololo, Siluyana lexicography, analysis and discussion

Anonymous (1985) Lozi Orthography, Department of Bantu Education, Windhoek, pp. 46.

 

Bennett, P.R. (1970) ‘Sesotho-Lozi: a clue to the evolution of multi-level tonal systems,’ Journal of African Languages, 9, 153-64.

 

Buiswalelo, H. M. (1984) Lilimi la Silozi: Litopa ze Pahami, Gamsberg, Windhoek.

 

Burger, J.P. (1960) An English-Lozi Vocabulary, Book Depot of Paris Missionary Society, Sefula, pp. 171.

 

Colyer, S. (1914) Sikololo: notes on the grammar with a vocabulary, pp. 53.

 

Elderkin, E.D. (1998) ‘Silozi and Namibia’ in K. Legère ed. Cross-Border Languages: Reports and Studies – Regional Workshops on Cross-Border Languages, Okahandja, 23-27 September 1996, Gamsberg Macmillan Windhoek, 205-225.

 

Fanshawe, D.B. and Mutimushi, J.M. (1971) ‘A Checklist of Plant Names in the Lozi Languages’, Ministry of Rural Development, Lusaka.

 

Fortune, G. (1977) An Outline of Silozi Grammar, Bookworld Publishers, Lusaka, pp. 106.

 

Gluckman, Max (1942) ‘Prefix concordance in Lozi, lingua franca of Barotseland,’ African Studies, 1, 105-114.

 

Gorman, W.A.R. (1950) Simple Silozi, Longmans, London, pp. 107.

 

Gowlett, D.F. (1964) ‘Morphology of the Substantive in Lozi,’ University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg.

______(1966) ‘Some Lozi riddles and tongue-twisters annotated and analysed,’ African Studies, 25, 3, 139-158.

______(1967) ‘Morphology of the Verb in Lozi,’ MA thesis, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, pp. 308.

______(1989) ‘The parentage and development of Lozi’ Journal of African Languages, 11, 2, 127-49.

 

Jacottet, E. (1896)Etudes sur les Langues du Haut Zambèze, E. Leroux, Paris.

 

Jalla, Adolphe (1917a) Sikololo-English Dictionary, pp. 205.

______(1917b) English-Sikololo dictionary, pp. 159.

______(1917c) Elementary Grammar of the Sikololo Language, pp.102.

______(1937a) Dictionary of the Lozi language, London.

______(1937b) Elementary Grammar of the Lozi Language, United Society for Christian Literature, pp. 108.

 

Kamitondo, E.N. (1958) Silozi Note Book, Longmans, Cape Town, pp. 46.

 

Kashoki, M.E. (1990) The Factor of Language in Zambia, Kenneth Kaunda Foundation, Lusaka, pp. 164.

 

Lewanika, G.A.M. (1949) English-Lozi Phrase Book, Macmillan, London, pp. 53.

 

Lisimba, M. (2000) Lozi Names in Language and Culture, International Centre for Bantu Civilizations, Libreville, pp. 320.

 

Livingstone, David (185-) [No title: vocabularies of eight Bantu languages], Grey Collection at the South African Libraries, Cape Town, pp. 35.

 

Mukuni, R.M. (1991) Silozi-English Phrase Book, Kenneth Kaunda Foundation, pp. 83

 

Mwikise, Peter (1989) ‘Enhancing Mutual Intelligibility among Sesotho, Setswana and Silozi: Problems and Prospects,’ University of Botswana, Gaborone.

 

Mwisiya, M. W. (1977) Introduction to Silozi Grammar, Kenneth Kaunda Foundation, Lusaka, pp. 168.

 

Ndopu, K.E. (1958) Silozi Note Book, Longmans, Cape Town, pp. 46.

 

O'Sullivan, O. (1993) English-Silozi Dictionary, Zambia Educational Publishing House, Lusaka, pp. 362.

 

Stirke, D. E. C. and Thomas, A.W. (1915) ‘Sikololo phrase book.’

______(1916) A Comparative Vocabulary of Sikololo-Silui-Simbunda, Bale & Danielsson, London, pp. 40.

 

Stappers, L. () ‘De toonstructuur van het Lozi (Kololo), de taal van Barotseland,’ Vlaamse Filologencongres, 17, 1947-1948.

 

Most of the above publications are out of print although a Jalla-derived dictionary is usually available in bookshops in Lusaka, Mongu and Livingstone. For children there is a 7-part collection of Silozi language trainers in the series 'Ihatisizwe Iwapili' published by the Kenneth Kaunda Foundation, Lusaka between 1990 and 1994 which is currently in use in schools that teach Silozi.

 

Lewanika

Bradley, K. (1959) ‘Statesmen: Coryndon and Lewanika in North-Western RhodesiaNorthern Rhodesia Journal, 4, 2, 127-134.

 

Coillard, F. (1897) On the Threshold of Central Africa: A record of Twenty Years Pioneering Among the Barotsi of the Upper Zambezi, Hodder and Staughton, London

______(1898) Sur le Haut Zambèse, Berger-Lerrault, Paris.

______(1971) On the Threshold of Central Africa: A record of Twenty Years Pioneering Among the Barotsi of the Upper Zambezi, Third Edition with a new Introduction by Max Gluckman, Frank Cass, London.

 

Clay, G. (1968) Your Friend Lewanika: The Life and Times of Lubosi Lewanika, Litunga of Barotseland, 1842 to 1916, Chatto and Windus, London.

 

Harding, C. (1905) In Remotest Barotseland: Being an Account of a Journey of over 8000 miles through the Wildest and Remotest Parts of Lewanika’s Empire, Hurst and Blackett, London.

 

Indakwa, J. (1975) ‘King Lewanika and the expansion of British rule in Barotseland 1890-1923: a study of British policy in Barotseland and North and Southern Zambesia in general, unpublished PhD thesis, Rice University, Houston, Texas.

 

Prins, G. (1980) The Hidden Hippopotamus, Reappraisal in African History: the early Colonial Experience in Western Zambia, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

 

Soane-Cambell, J. (1950) ‘I knew Lewanika’, Northern Rhodesia Journal, 1, 18-23.

 

Stirke, D.W. (1922) Barotseland: Eight Years among the Barotse, John Bale, Sons and Danielsson, London.

 

(1916-17) ‘The death of Lewanika’, Journal of the African Society, 16, 149-154.

(1964) ‘Correspondence – Lewanika visits Livingstone’, Northern Rhodesia Journal, 5, 5, 513-514

 

Luvale/Lovale/Balovale Lunda/Balunda/

Papstein, R. (1989) ‘From ethnic identity to tribalism: The Upper Zambezi region of Zambia, 1830-1981’, in Vail, L. [ed.] The Creation of Tribalism in Southern Africa, James Currey, London.

______(1992) ‘How tribalism developed in Northwestern Zambia’, in ‘Institutions, culture and change at local community level’, Occasional Paper No. 3, Dept of International Development, University of Roskilde.

 

Wele, P. (1993) Likumbi lya Mize and other Luvale Traditional Ceremonies, Zambia Educational Publishing House, Lusaka.

 

White, C.M.N. (1948) ‘Witchcraft, divination and magic among the Balovale tribes’, Africa, 18, 2, 81-104.

______(1948) ‘The material culture of the Lunda-Lovale peoples’, Occasional Papers of the Rhodes-Livingstone Institute, 3.

______(1949) ‘The Balovale peoples and their historical background’, Rhodes-Livingstone Journal, 8, 26-41.

______(1951) ‘A note on the “Makishi”’, Northern Rhodesia Journal, 1, 4, 67-70

______(1959) ‘A preliminary survey of Luvale rural economy’ Rhodes-Livingstone Papers 29, Manchester University Press, Manchester for Institute for Social Research, University of Zambia.

______(1960) ‘An outline of Luvale social and political organization’ Rhodes-Livingstone Papers 30 , Manchester University Press, Manchester for Institute for Social Research, University of Zambia.

______(1961) ‘Elements in Luvale beliefs and rituals’ Rhodes-Livingstone Papers 32, Manchester University Press, Manchester for Institute for Social Research, University of Zambia.

______(1962) ‘The ethno-history of the Upper Zambezi’, African Studies, 21, 10-27.

 

(1936) ‘The tribes of the Balovale district and the history of their chieftaincies’ paper prepared by District Officer, Balovale, February 20 1936, typescript held by Livingstone Museum [TH2/17/1].

 

Makololo

Ellenberger, D.F. (1912) History of the Basuto Ancient and Modern, Caxton Publishing, London.

 

Flint, E. (1970) ‘Trade and politics in Barotseland during the Kololo period’, Journal of African History, 11, 1, 71-86.

 

Mackenzie, J. (1871) Ten Years North of the Orange River: A Story of Everyday Life and Work among the South African Tribes from 1859-1869, Edmonton and Douglas, Edinburgh, 1871.

 

Morgan, T. (1872) Eleven Years in Central South Africa, J. Snow, London [pp. 418].

 

Nalilungwe, M. (date unknown) ‘Here are the Makololo’ – a translation by H. Zulu of ‘Makololo ki ba’, Rhodes-Livingstone Museum, Livingstone, Typescript now held by Livingstone Museum.

 

Rangeley, W. (1957) ‘The Makololo of Dr. Livingstone’, The Nyasaland Journal, 10, 1, 59-98.

 

Soremukin, F. (1977) ‘Trade and dependency in central Angola: The Ovimbundu in the nineteenth century’ in Palmer, R. and Parsons, N. [eds.] The Roots of Rural Poverty in Central and Southern Africa, Heinemann, London, 82-95 [esp. 87-88].

 

Missionaries and belief systems/religion generally

Arnot, F.S. (1969) Garenganze or Seven Year’s Pioneer Work in Central Africa [New edition of 1889 work], Frank Cass, London.

 

Baker, E. (1921) The Life and Explorations of Frederick Stanley Arnot, Seeley Service and Co., London.

 

Coillard, F. (1897) On the Threshold of Central Africa: A record of Twenty Years Pioneering Among the Barotsi of the Upper Zambezi, Hodder and Staughton, London

______(1898) Sur le Haut Zambèse, Berger-Lerrault, Paris.

______(1971) On the Threshold of Central Africa: A record of Twenty Years Pioneering Among the Barotsi of the Upper Zambezi, Third Edition with a new Introduction by Max Gluckman, Frank Cass, London.

 

Favre, E. (1913) François Coillard Missionaire au Zambèze, Société des Missions Evangeliques, Paris.

 

Jalla, A. and E. (1904) Pionniers parmi les Ma-Rotse, Imprimarie Claudienne, Florence.

 

Mackintosh, C.W. (1907) Coillard of the Zambezi, T. Fisher Unwin, London.

______(1950) ‘Some pioneer missions of Northern Rhodesia and Nyasaland’,

 

Mainga, M. (1972)‘A history of Lozi religion to the end of the nineteenth century’ in Ranger, T. O. and Kinambo, I.N. (eds.) The Historical Study of African Religion, Heinemann, London, 1972), pp. 95-107.

 

Ragsdale, J.P. (1986) Protestant Mission Education in Zambia 1880-1954, Associated Universities Press, Cranberry, NJ and London.

 

Rea, W.F. (1968) ‘George Westbeech and the Barotseland Missionaries 1878-1888, Local Series No. 21, Central Africa Historical Association, Salisbury.

 

Nkoya

Clay, G. (1945) ‘History of the Mankoya district’, Communications from the Rhodes-Livingstone Institute No.4, typescript held at Livingstone Museum, Zambia.

 

Van Binsbergen, W. (1994) ‘Minority language and the state in two African situations: The Nkoya of Zambia and the Kalange of Botswana’ in Fardon, R. and Furniss, G. (eds.) African Languages, Development and the State, Routledge, London, pp. 142-188.

______(1999) ‘Nkoya royal chiefs and the Kazanga Cultural Association in western central Zambia today’ in Van Rouveroy, E.A.B. and Van Dijk, R. (eds.) African Chieftaincy in a new socio-political Landscape, LIT-Verlag, Hamburg, 97-133.

 

Physical environment

Arnot, F. (1900) ‘The regions of the Okavango’ Geographical Journal, 15, 291.

 

Barkved, E. (1996) ‘A report on water management in the Zambezi River Basin in the 1950s’ Zambezi Documentation Study, Centre for Development Studies, University of Bergen, Norway.

 

Bradshaw, B.F. (1881) ‘Notes on the Chobe River, South Central Africa’, Proceedings of the Royal Geographical Society, 3, 208-213.

 

Cole, M. (1963) ‘Vegetation and geomorphology in Northern Rhodesia: an aspect of the distribution of the Savannah of Central Africa’, Geographical Journal, 129, 3, 290-305.

 

Fanshawe, D.B. and Mutimushi, J.M. (1971) ‘A Checklist of Plant Names in the Lozi Languages’, Ministry of Rural Development, Lusaka.

 

Grove, A.T. (1969) ‘Landforms and climatic change in the Kalahari and Ngamiland’, Geographical Journal, 135, 2, 191-212.

 

Peters, D.U. (1960) Land Usage in Barotseland, Rhodes-Livingstone Institute, Lusaka.

 

Timberlake, J. (2000) ‘Biodiversity of the Zambezi Basin Wetlands’, Consultancy Report for IUCN, The Zambezi Society, Harare, and Biodiversity Foundation for Africa, Bulawayo, Zimbabwe [particularly Volume III which deals with land use change in Barotseland].

 

Timberlake, J. Bailey, M. and Mundy, P. (2004) ‘Biodiversity of the Four Corners Area: bibliography’, Biodiversity Foundation for Africa, Bulawayo and the Zambezi Society, Harare.

 

Verboom W.C. and Brunt, M.A. (1970) An Ecological Survey of Western Province, Zambia, with Special Reference to the Fodder Resources [2 volumes I – ‘The environment’, II – The grasslands and their development’], Foreign and Commonwealth Office, Land resources Division, Tolworth, UK.

 

Wellington, J.H. (1955) Southern Africa: A Geographical Study [2 volumes], Cambridge University Press, Cambridge.

 

Silozi: publications and papers in the vernacular

Mbikusita, G. (1938-9) ‘Rules, traditions, proverbs and legends of the Lozi people’ [all text in Silozi] (originally in possession of PEMS, donated to Livingstone Museum in 1990).

 

Ikacana, N.S. (1964)‘Litaba za Makwangwa’ [‘History of the Makwangwa’] plus English translation by H. Zulu, held as typescripts at Livingstone Museum, Zambia.

 

Jalla, A. (1921) Litaba za Sicaba sa Malozi, [Matters of Lozi History] originally produced for Colonial Office - Africa No. 1179, revised in 1996 with orthography approved by the Zambian Ministry of Education and published by Bookworld, Lusaka.

 

Manyando, F. (date uncertain) Mu Zibe za Muleneñi

 

Mupatu, Y.W. (1958) Mulambwa Santulu u Amuhela bo Mwene (‘Mulambwa Satulu receives the Mbunda Chiefs’) also translated into English by the author and held as typescripts at Livingstone Museum, Zambia.

______(1959) Bulozi Sapili (Bulozi in days past’) Oxford University Press, Cape Town [copy typescript held at Livingstone Museum].

 

Muyundi, K. (date uncertain) Bucwala mwa Bulozi (‘Craftsmanship in Barotseland’), translated into English by D.W. Lukonga and held as typescript at the Livingstone Museum, Zambia.

 

Nalilungwe, M. (Date uncertain) Makololo ki ba! (‘The Makololo are here!’), translated by H. Zulu and held as typescript at the Livingstone Museum, Zambia.

 

Sakubita, M.M. (1974) Za Luna li lu Siile (‘Our vanishing past’), National Education Company of Zambia (Neczam), Lusaka.

_____(1982) Kalabo wa Mboanjikana (‘Kalabo of the Mboanjikana’) Revised Edition, National Education Company of Zambia, Lusaka.

 

Unpublished papers and theses

Deak, A. (1996) ‘A Museum’s role in society’, unpublished paper submitted foe degree of MSSc, Stockholm University.

 

Englebert, P. (2004) ‘Should I stay or should I go’ unpublished paper presented to 19th biannual conference of the Vereinigung von Afrikanisten in Deutschland, Hannover, 2-5 June 2004.

 

Flint, L.S. (2005) Historical constructions of postcolonial citizenship and subjectivity: the case of the Lozi peoples of southern central Africa’, unpublished PhD thesis, University of Birmingham, UK.

 

Hermitte, E.L. (1974) 'An economic history of Barotseland', unpublished PhD Thesis [Ref. 74-28,643], Northwestern University, USA.

 

Indakwa, J. (1975) ‘King Lewanika and the expansion of British rule in Barotseland 1890-1923: a study of British policy in Barotseland and North and Southern Zambesia in general, Unpublished PhD thesis, Rice University, Houston, Texas.

 

Kangumu, B.K. (2000) ‘A forgotten corner of Namibia: Aspects of the History of the Caprivi Strip, c1939-1980, unpublished MA Dissertation, University of Cape Town, 2000/24537.

 

Mbikusita, G. (1941) ‘The Barotse Tribal History’

 

Mongu Municipal Council (2002) ‘District profile: Mongu District’, Mongu Municipal Council, Mongu, Western Province, Zambia.

 

Munalula, C.L. (date uncertain) ‘Experiences of the western province of Zambia – understanding the role of traditional authorities’, unpublished paper produced for Community-Based Natural Resource Management (CBNRM), Kristiansand, Norway.

 

Mututwa, M. (1997) ‘Petition on the conflicts arising out of the abrogation of the Barotseland Agreement 1964 and the need for intervention and resolution’

 

Pretorius, J.L. (1975) ‘The Fwe of the Eastern Caprivi Zipfel: a study of their historical and geographical background, tribal structure and legal system, with special reference to Fwe family law and succession’, unpublished Masters Dissertation in Development Administration, University of Stellenbosch [80/7620], South Africa.

 

Sasa, D. (2000) ‘The Mayeyi Chieftainship’, paper presented at seminar held at University of Namibia, 22-25 August, 2000 entitled ‘Public History: Forgotten History’.

 

Sehani, M. (2000) ‘The Mafwe/Mayuni crisis: rival histories and the assertion of identity in the Caprivi’, paper presented at seminar held at University of Namibia, 22-25 August, 2000 entitled ‘Public History: Forgotten History’.

 

Vrydagh, P.A. (date uncertain) ‘Mbunda Makishi’, unpublished manuscript held at the Livingstone Museum, Zambia.

 

Zambia

-literature wholly focusing on Zambia but relevant to an understanding of Barotseland/Western Province/Lozi interests

 

Brelsford, W.V. (1950) ‘Some cases of witchcraft’ Northern Rhodesia Journal, 1, 1, 53-56.

 

Brelsford, W.V. and Clay, G. (1952) ‘Bibliography of Northern Rhodesia: Part I – Books and articles published prior to 1st January 1901’, Northern Rhodesia Journal, 1, 6, 20-25.

______(1953) ‘Bibliography of Northern Rhodesia: Part I – Books and articles published between 1st January 1901 and 31st December 1924, Northern Rhodesia Journal, 2, 2, 28-36.

 

Cole, M.M. (1963) ‘Vegetation and geomorphology in Northern Rhodesia: An aspect of the distribution of the savanna of Central AfricaGeographical Journal, 129, 3, 290-305.

 

Davies, D.H. (1971) Zambia in Maps, University of London Press, London.

 

Kay, G. (1967) A Social Geography of Zambia: A Survey of Population Patterns in a Developing Country, University of London, London[especially Chapter 3].

 

Macola, G. (2003) ‘Historical and ethnographical publications in the vernaculars of colonial Zambia: Missionary contribution to the ‘creation of tribalism’, Journal of Religion in Africa, 33, 4, 343-364.

 

Ogilvie, A.G. (1934) ‘Co-operative research in geography: With an African Example’, Scottish Geographical Magazine, 50, 6, 353-378.